Sport is one of the industries with the greatest growth potential in the world. As in any other sector, there is a growing need for measurability in sport as well as numerical support for decisions. One of the determinative decision criteria of owners and leaders is financial data, which influences the operation of the company or the assessment of investment opportunities. In present research, we examined the liquidity situation of sports enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. We used the OPTEN database, which contains annual reporting data for sports enterprises. In order to be more manageable, sports enterprises were grouped by revenue categories and scope of activity, along which we managed the obtained liquidity datas by aggregating and averaging. Based on the results, it can be concluded that most sports enterprises operating in the county sports sector are privately owned micro-enterprises, which have a lower turnover category and the main activity is 931 Sports services. Their liquidity position is on average favourable, they show high growth potential and they are characterized by risk-averse behaviour.
Keywords: sports, sports economic, sports organizations, liquidity
JEL code: G32, Z21
Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The interview included questions about trainers highest qualifications, qualifications related to trainer work and the extent to which this is monitored by their employers. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Controlling the qualifications be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.
Keywords: fitness club, fitness trainer, fitness programs, consumers
JEL Kód: Z20
Nowadays, a health-conscious lifestyle has come to the fore, with one of their important components being leisure sports. In our research, we examined the sporting habits of Debrecen university students (n=178) and factors that may influence these habits, with an online questionnaire. We found out that 61% of respondents exercise regularly in their spare time. With the help of a four-point Likert scale, we examined how much influence the availability and quality of various sports services have on the students. The highest rating was given to having a friendly atmosphere (3.5), which is followed by good equipment and facilities (3.45). We analyzed how much they spend on their health and how willing they are to spend more on their health if they had more money. For non-sporting students, they more likely to be unsatisfied with their physical condition all the while they spend less on their health. Non-sporting students cited lack of time (3.49) as the greatest turn-off when questioned. A significant percentage of both groups (78.18% of sporting, 86.76% of non-sporting) would be willing to spend more on their health if they earned additional cash.
Keywords: sporting habits, university students, leisure sport
JEL code: I12
Before the recent coronavirus pandemic the football sector could be described with stable economic growth. The individual and cummulated revenue growth of football clubs are obviously in coherence with the nuncupation of player rights’, i.e. the player transfer activity of football clubs. The consecutive economical growth had it’s effect on player transfer values, since in the last decade constantly rising transfer prices could be experienced. In spite of the fact that this phenomenon carries a danger as well through the growth of player transfer values, by and large it contributes to the growth of the sector. European club football in total reported operating profits in 2018 for the second consecutive year. The continous development had been stopped by the COVID-19 pandemic. Matches were postponed and fans could only follow their teams via broadcasting. Restrictions had their effect not only on club revenue, but on players’ valuation as well, resulting 13-18% impairment on their market value by the analysis of the most costly transfers of the last transfer window.
Keywords: football, player rights, sporteconomics
JEL code: Z21
An important basis for the development of new rural development practices is the re-creation of supply chains. SFSCs (Short Food Supply Chain) are also capable of breaking the system of long, complex industrial chains. In the case of SFSCs, producer-consumer relations are “shortened” and redefined. After exploring the literature, I came to the conclusion that short supply chains are receiving more and more attention nowadays, and more and more forms of operation are appearing in Hungary as well.
The promotion of local products has been helped by a number of programs in recent years. I have found that the international literature presents the operation of RELs in the form of a case study. The primary aim of the study was to search for international examples that can form a basis of comparison for the organizations operating in Hungary, especially in Hajdú-Bihar County. After that, I presented specific networks operating in Hajdú-Bihar county, four networks were identified. Finally, I discussed the results of a questionnaire survey between REL members. In summary, 80% of the respondents believe in the viability and economical operation of RELs. Most identified the development of information technology as an area of operation to be developed. Farmers would be willing to strengthen direct sales in order to make product production economical. 88% of producers sell in local, producer markets. They are basically satisfied with the functioning of the producer market and also consider it economically satisfactory to sell on the producer market.
Keywords: short supply chain, short food supply chain, local food, local product, producer market
JEL code: Q13
In the recent period, the use of renewable energy sources has received increasing emphasis both in the European Union and in Hungary. Building on the successes of the recent decades, the European Union and Hungarian documents have set increasingly ambitious objectives. European Union subsidies play a very important role in the financing of investments, and in the spirit of this, the aim of the study is to present the spatial characteristics of projects supporting the use of renewable energy sources in one specific region of Hungary, in the Northern Great Plain region. As a result of the research, on the one hand, the influencing role of three factors can be detected. The effect of socio-economic development was observed at both county and district levels, and in the case of settlements the number of population and the administrative role (existence of a district center) can be mentioned. On the other hand, the study also revealed that there are significant differences between the spatial characteristics of the two operational programs supporting the use of renewable energy sources (Regional and Settlement Development Operational Program, Environmental and Energy Efficiency Operational Program).
Keywords: renewable energy resources, EU grants, spatial characteristics
JEL code: H76, N54, Q42, R58
Family farms have an important role in agriculture. It is a form of farming where the family can keep the acquired competence and wealth of the farm for several generations.Therefore the issue of generational change is becoming more and more important nowadays. However, generational changing can face a number of obstacles. One of the major obstacles to farm transfer can be if the family farm does not have a successor, who could carry on the family traditions. In practice, the State and the European Union too try to encourage young farmers to continue agricultural activity, but this is not too popular. In our survey, we were looking for the answer to how much psychological pressure there is on successors to take over their family farm, and how much this pressure depends on the size of the farm and the generation of successors. We conducted the questionnaire survey with family farms in Karcag where the issue of succession is actual. The results of the study based on the responses of the farmers surveyed, show that the successors do not feel the pressure of taking over the farm, but are rather proud to be able to continue on their family traditions.Keywords: generational change, pressure, family farmers, Karcag
JEL code: Z00
Based on literature, the aim of this review is to provide a clear vision of the general aspects of communication, the linguistic effects in communication, and noises in organizational communication and their solutions. Regarding the review of different disciplines, the basic concept of communication appears differently; communication noises must be considered in all the cases during communication. Noise includes physical phenomena, psychological factors, but it can also be interpreted as linguistic or intellectual barriers, such as those arising from the interpretation of loanwords and different wording. In Hungary, research on the effectiveness of organizational communication has examined the effect of different wording of job advertisements in a general framework, research results on the use of loanwords and different wording are found in linguistic research.
Keywords: communication, corporate communication, loanwords, wording, recruitment
JEL code: M54
Permanent change is an axiomatic phenomenon in organization life that has its effect every day. Responding to changes is one of the conditions for the long-term survival of an organization. In our study, we looked into the question how changes affect organizations, what perceptible transformations and reactions they evoke or generate in the functioning of organizations. To answer these questions, semi-structure interviews were applied with Hajdú-Bihar county senior executives, owners. Our results showed that consistency, teamwork, and continuous feedback play a critical role in implementing change. Management tasks transform during the change, the proportions of each task shift. Based on the results, it is worth conducting further research on the role of management tasks in organizational change.
Keywords: change, management, leadership tasks, organization
JEL code: M14
„Is the glass ceiling a self-fulfilling prophecy?! – Connection between career opportunities and competencies among female workers” research has focused on the presence of women in the labor market. The objective of the questionnaire research is to assess whether women are stuck at certain career levels due to the lack of competence and motivation. During the research, I was able to gain insight into women’s attitudes towards careers, which showed a positive picture. I assessed that they were motivated, and I also got answer to the main question, that significant percentage of the 161-person sample would like to work as a leader, and they would have the appropriate skills. However, I was also told that they are building their own barriers to the workplace, many of them are happy with their current job, but not wanting more. The presence of a glass ceiling in the workplace is important to get proper attention as women make up a significant part of the labor market.
Keywords: women, carrer, competence, leadership, glass ceiling
Jel code: J24, J71, M54
For the former rural society the basic pillar of economic security was the homestead, and farming there, which was then further inherited within the family. A century ago more than a million people lived on homesteads in Hungary, but today it has fallen to well under a quarter of a million. The decline in population was due on the one hand, to the emergence of modern machinery and new cultivation and breeding technologies in agriculture, which transformed farming and the people involved, and on the other, to society’s living standards and expectations out of infrastructures that meet modern needs, so the emigration of the younger generations living there began, who moved into nearby villages and towns. The aim of my research was to explore the future tendencies of the possibilities of moving from homesteads among the homestead inhabitants of Hajdú-Bihar county, taking into account the current conditions, which was based on a survey conducted in all its districts. The results of the study show that most of the newer generations growing up on homesteads no longer envision their future there, however if the homestead were more extensively constructed in terms of comfort and corresponded to a higher degree of comfort, this might guarantee that the young people would still remain in place.
Keywords: homestead, newer types of generations, youth, stay, future
JEL code: Z00
The starting point for the presentation of the topic indicated in the title of the study is the use of spas in Central Hungary (mainly belonging to Budapest Spas cPlc.) and the purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (especially the Budapest Spas product family, which is Budapest Spas cPlc.’s balneo cosmetics family). Description of a theoretical model describing the system of relations between the influencing factors – built on the basis of literature and secondary sources. The practical significance of the topic covered through the theoretical concept is primarily the return to naturalness, in terms of the topic, to medicinal water and the purchase and use of cosmetics made from medicinal water ingredients. Following the presentation of the theoretical model, the research model concept is described, the factors of which have been supplemented with new determinants by the qualitative research results. The research model concept was developed by interpreting the results of two-phase qualitative data collection. The objectives (and outcomes) associated with the surveys were as follows. (1) With the help of online content monitoring (n = 50) the main factors of buying and consuming balneo cosmetics were identified. (2) With the help of individual research interviews (n = 20) the validity of the theoretical model was examined and the use of balneo, the main variables of the purchase and consumption of cosmetics were explored, highlighting the identification of consumer grouping directions that focus on consciously spent leisure time, health awareness and recreation. This publication focuses on the presentation of model development and key qualitative research findings.
Keywords: spas, balneo cosmetics, purchasing, consumption, recreation
JEL code: M31
The starting point for the presentation of the topic indicated in the title of the study is the use of spas in Central Hungary (mainly belonging to Budapest Spas cPlc.), and the purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (especially the Budapest Spas product family, which is Budapest Spas cPlc.’s balneo cosmetics family) a description of a research model describing the relationship between factors – based on literature, secondary sources and qualitative research.
This last phase of the research concludes with the interpretation of the result of single-phase online quantitative data collection (n = 218) based on the research model concept. The methods used in the study are one-, two- (cross-tabular) and multivariate (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) methods. Univariate methods show the prominent role of each key variable. Bivariate or multivariate methods explore the relationships between the variables examined and the lists of claims in the field of spas and balneo cosmetics. The objectives (and results) related to the data collection were as follows: The advantage of spas in Budapest is that they are relatively close to each other, so their frequency of visits is one or more times a year. The spas of Pest County are the least visited, which may be due to the unknown nature of the spas here. The frequency of visits to the examined Budapest spas can be explained by their awareness, frequency and breadth of services. The most common reason for visiting regional spas is the refreshment, which is behind the variable, the reason why consumers, in their conscious free time, look for the opportunities provided by medicinal waters, by which they can recharge and relax. The need for recreation, on the other hand, does not show a difference between each age group, as all age groups need rest and recharge. Among the spa services, a distinction can be made between basic, extended and extra packages, of which the basic and extended packages are used more by women and the extra packages are mainly used by men. Consumer groups can also be formed based on the reasons for using the spas. There are consumers who are open and there are those who are not open about their attitudes towards spa services. Spas are generally used by consumers for regeneration, disease prevention and recreational reasons. Balneo cosmetics are especially bought by women, both for medical, preventive and recreational purposes, and because they consider these cosmetic products to be anti-allergenic, ie they do not fear the risk of developing allergies. In terms of openness to balneo cosmetics, there is an open and an open group for balneo cosmetics, and an open group that cannot be called open for all factors examined. The practical applicability of the research is to make medicinal waters as widely known as possible in relation to both spas and balneo cosmetics.
Keywords: use of spas (in Central Hungary), purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (in Central Hungary), qualitative research, model development, recreation
JEL code: M31
The study is focused on the collection and complex analysis of the original, yet unpublished Jewish documents in the feudal source collections of MNL, Hungarian National Archives from the second half of the 18th century until 1848.
The search for original internal sources began with a review of government records during the period under review. The collections in the Chancellery Archives, Acta Generalia (A 39) and the Council of Governor-General Archives, Departamentum Judaeorum (C 55) maintain the documents of the first and second instance bodies of the public administration in their relations with the intermediate administrative authorities. The source material in the Chancellery Archives presents mostly records of general affairs, whereas the Departamentum Judaeorum collection of the Council of Governor-General contains Jewish-related issues. In support of the presumptions, the collections are rich in Jewish-related internal, historical sources. The documents allow for a complex analysis of the time, number, geographical distribution, and content of the document collections. The sources contribute to a better understanding of the history of the Jews, their settlement, their economic, cultural, religious life, and their system of relations with Christian society. The document pages present their content to researchers in the wording of the members of contemporaneous Jewish society. Based on the research experience, it can be concluded that the vast majority of the sources come from Pest County, more closely from the town of Pest. Research on these inner sources in the collections of other counties is expedient to increase awareness of Jewish history in the modern Kingdom of Hungary. Therefore, the future goal of the research may be to review the materials of the county archives. It provides an opportunity to compare how the archival material in the national archives is complemented by archival collections from the counties. The development of a database could also be a step forward and could integrate the sources in national and county archives by indicating headings, names, locations, indexes, and short regestas. The available internal source material can refine and enrich the known history of 17-19th century Jews.
Keywords: Internal source, Jews, social history,, economic history, cultural history
JEL code: 02 02 07
In 2020 Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County Archives of the National Archives of Hungary tried a new form of presenting. In contrast with the previous static posts, this time Institute used the opportunity of modern video making, which can satisfy the needs of today’s audience more successfully. Digital storytelling is such content that is meant to be shared, and is created by the logical connecting of auditory and visual elements. We found it important to place such original archival documents in the centre of the video that are capable of grabbing the attention both with their substance and appearance. The demonstrated documents originate from 1949. They include the texts and drawings of young students, celebrating Stalin’s 70th birthday. These documents can appeal to the interest not only by their spectacular appearance but also by their historical value. The children’s words are trustworthy proof for Stalin’s personality cult and perfectly reflect the propaganda of the era. The video was published on YouTube.
Keywords: digital storytelling, Stalin, personality cult, archives
JEL code: 02 02 07
Tanulmányunkban olyan célt tűztünk magunk elé, melyre vonatkozóan sem a magyar, sem a nemzetközi szakirodalomban nem találtunk precedenst: tényadatokból kiindulva számszerűsíteni az influenza elleni védőoltás hatékonyságát, s a valós adatok alapján számított hatékonysági értékből kiindulva megállapítani a védőoltások révén be nem következett megbetegedések számát.
Tanulmányunkban a 2018/2019-es influenza szezon adatait elemeztük. Munkánk során a népesség számra, a beoltottságra és a megbetegedések számára vonatkozóan rendelkezésre álló adatokat elemeztük, vontunk le belőlük objektív következtetéseket. Problémát jelentett, hogy az eltérő adatállományokban eltérő korcsoportokra vonatkoztatva jelentek meg az alapadatok, így azok között a konszenzust meg kellett teremteni, összehasonlítható korcsoportokat kellett képezni. Végső soron három jól elkülöníthető korosztály keletkezett. A kiskorúak csoportja (0 – 18 év), a gazdaságilag aktívak (19 – 59 év) és a 60 év felettiek korcsoportja. Ez a három korosztály népességileg, beoltottság és megbetegedés szerint jól elkülöníthetővé vált.
Bemutattuk az influenza betegséget általánosságban, az influenza vírus jellemzőit, változékonyságát. Ismertettük a jellemzően érintett korosztályt, a kezelendő betegek számát, az elmúlt 5 – 10 évre vonatkozó trendeket.
A bemutatott tényadatokból, számsorokból, az abból végzett számítások eredményéből és a levont következtetésekből a szubjektivitást teljes mértékben kizárva látszik a védőoltások betegséget megelőző hatása, hatékonysága, melyet – elsőként a hazai szakirodalomban – számszerűsíteni is sikerült.
Kulcsszavak: Kvalitatív Módszerek, Finanszírozás, Egészség
JEL Kódok: C4, G0, I1
The COVID-19 epidemic had an enormous impact on the entire world, including the Hungarian population. The situation was accompanied by numerous new restrictions, strict regulations, and their consequences had to be dealt with, which also affected the life of everyone. Therefore, it was considered that it would be worthwhile to assess the different reactions to this situation among the population, what effects the people had to face and whether there was a change in their lives. The opinions of respondents on different areas of life was surveyed, such as private life, changes in personal relationships, introduction of changes in workplace habits, and the effects on health and mental state. Also the survey intended to reveal newly developed good and bad habits. The survey method was a questionnaire-based survey, which was delivered to the respondents online (n=362). The results obtained from the sample were evaluated, subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and then crosstabs were performed based on background variables (gender, age, educational attainment, occupation, and income) to present correlations. The results of the sample are not representative, but they properly represent and summarize the situation.
Keywords: COVID-19, impact of work, health, mood, relationships, habits, home office
JEL code: I12
The changes resulting from the covid epidemic have led to an unprecedented spread of the Home Office. In our study, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of working away from work, we chose an organization’s Northern Great Plain Region where face-to-face negotiations are essential, so they were rarely used before the emergency, but were switched en masse due to changed circumstances. We sought to answer which of the literature factors significantly impacted employee satisfaction related to teleworking and the need to maintain it after an epidemic. Based on the regression analysis results, we found that employee satisfaction with a greater desire to switch to telecommuting, proficiency in solutions replacing personal communication channels, and perceived improvement in work-life balance has a positive, uncertainty and stress associated with implementation. Workers would be happy to work in this form in the future if they desire to switch to teleworking became more pronounced at the time of introduction. However, the fear of switching, higher age and lack of managerial feedback would lead them back to the workplace. As a suggestion, we stated that managerial support is vital throughout the process, which should be reflected in employees’ involvement in the decision-making process, the appropriate replacement of the personal communication channel, and more frequent feedback. In improving work-life balance, a leader can be on the side of time management to help his followers by prioritizing tasks. In the Home Office experience process, these measures can help employees experience the benefits of telecommuting more
Keywords: home office, covid, change management, leadership
Jel codes: J24, L16, M54
The impact of the pandemic crisis was particularly significant on the labour market. In our study, we sought the answer to what percentage of workers were brought into precarious conditions by the epidemic. Another question was in which industries were the organizations able to use the Home Office option and their practical experience. Based on secondary data, different economic sectors have been affected to different degrees by the viral situation, with low, medium and high levels separated by the literature according to the impact on emissions. Compared to the global average (50%), Hungary has a higher proportion of employees (60%) in the “high” or “medium high” sectors. According to German regional results, education, finance and telecommunications within the service are the areas where teleworking is most applicable to maintain continuous operation and employment. As part of primary research, we interviewed the head of an organization operating in a low-, medium- and high-impact sector in the Northern Great Plain Region. There was no significant change in the “low” category, in the case of “medium” the acquisition activity was pushed into the background, in the case of “high” there was a downsizing. Based on this, it can be said that the Pandemic catalyzed the digitization processes, the Home Office, which was introduced or expanded by force, presumably had a developmental effect on organizations, which effect cannot be left without a trace after the virus situation. The organization’s experience can be utilized if it returns to the “normal” wheelbase by eliminating the disadvantages and strengthening the advantages.
Keywords: covid, employment, home office, economic sectors, regions
JEL codes: J24, L16
A szervezetek hatékonyságát döntően befolyásolja az alkalmazottak elégedettsége és jólléte. Ebben a tanulmányban megvizsgáltuk, hogy a munkahelyi motivációs eszközök hogyan befolyásolják az alkalmazottak jólétét és hatékonyságát, mi okozza a stresszt, és milyen megoldásokkal lehet javítani a munkahelyi légkört, és milyen elemek vannak jelen az egészségfejlesztésben. Az online kérdőívre 157 értékelhető válasz érkezett. A kérdőívet online, a Google Űrlapok rendszer segítségével tettük közzé. A kérdőívre adott válaszok alapján megállapítható, hogy a válaszadók többsége nem ismeri az egészségfejlesztés fogalmát. A jóllét érzését növelik a megemelt bérek, a megbecsülés és az extra pénzjutalmak. Ha kellemesebb, nyugodtabb, kiegyensúlyozottabb a munkahelyi légkör, ez egyértelműen elégedettséghez vezet – nyilatkozták. A stressz nagy részét a túlterhelés, az ügyfélgondozás és a vezetővel való kapcsolat (rossz) minősége okozza. A válaszadók 55 %-a saját bevallása alapján nem szeret a jelenlegi munkahelyén dolgozni.
Kulcsszavak: wellbeing, stressz, emberi erőforrás menedzsment
Jel kódok: M14, M54
Egyre több szervezet küzd a szakképzett munkaerő-hiányának problémájával, így a megtartás-menedzsment a HR szakma egyik kulcsterületévé vált az elmúlt néhány évben. A témával kapcsolatos felmérések döntően a dolgozók szemszögéből közelítik meg a kérdést, lényegesnek tartottuk ezért feltárni, hogy a vállalatvezetők hogyan vélekednek az alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartást célzó intézkedések eredményességéről. Tanulmányunk egy 2020-ban készült kutatás néhány eredményét mutatja be. Az általunk megkérdezett vállalatvezetők a rugalmas foglalkoztatási formákat (pl. rugalmas munkaidő) tartják leginkább alkalmasnak a munkaerő-megtartására, de fontos szerepet tulajdonítanak a csoportkohézió kialakításának (pl. tréningek szervezése), illetve a dolgozók béremelésbe való bevonásának is. A tervezett eszközök közül kiemelkedik a hosszú távú ösztönzési program, munkavállalói elégedettség és elköteleződés felmérése, valamint a teljesítményértékelési rendszer kidolgozása és annak bevezetése. Legkevésbé alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartó programelem az életbiztosítás és a nyugdíjbiztosítás.
Kulcsszavak: HR trendek, munkaerőmegtartás, motiváció, KKV szektor
Jel kód: M54
It is very difficult to measure the leadership excellence. Partly because the indicators of the organizational excellence are measuring mainly the effectiveness and there are not focusing on the “managerial value”. Scientist made a lot of effort in the last decades to measure the “managerial value”, trying to approach from many sides the managerial success. In our research we wanted to review the international practice, and, in the other hand we tried to conduct a situation survey among Hungarian leaders with the aim of exploring the value-creation processes and the managerial thinking and practice which are behind them. This article focuses on self-management solutions and operational management processes to improve the effectiveness of organizational processes. One of the goals of the survey was to discover and present the Hungarian management mindset, the self-management working methods and time-management behavior in the SME sector, all in the context of effectiveness and to enrich with this new information the scientific and market knowledge in the field. 148 managers were included in the study, partly due to the difficult availability, the low willingness to answer, and partly due to the confidential nature of the questions and the large size of the questionnaire.
According to the answers we can see, that among the interviewed leaders are common the use of time-management applications, task-lists (with task prioritization) and accordingly, the next day’s activities are planned in the evenings. Correlated with the supervision of corporate processes, quality management systems, decision making systems and connection with employees (eg: site visits and daily meetings) receive a special attention.
In the basic research we developed 3 clusters: “uncertain empathic”, “experienced strategist” and “ambitious purposeful”. Among them the members of the last cluster performed excellently based on their daily work practices and daily leadership habits. 86.36% of the organizations they lead are profitable and growing at a balanced rate (5% growth rate per year). If we look for the human factors behind the outstanding organizational effectiveness, the components of excellence, presumably this cluster offers solutions.
Keywords: self-management, leadership, organizational effectiveness, managerial effectiveness
Jel codes: M12, M14, M54
The civil organisations started to appear more often around the local regime changes in Hungary and Romania. Most of these civil organisations aimed to perform different tasks in culture, sports or other public purposes. At the same period in the two named countries, Hungary and Romania, a significant change began in employment. Before the regime changes in the two countries, the most important actor on the employer’s side was the state itself. However, after 1989, private companies started to employ more employees and play a greater role in the labour market. At the same time, several civil organisations appeared on the local labour markets that could employ people. However, some of these organisations employed a few volunteer employees who covered most of the activities related to the organisational aims of these organisations. Volunteerism became more popular in Hungary and Romania as well. Volunteering is widespread in sport-focused civil organisations in connection with organising smaller or major sporting events. The study aims to explore the employment characteristics of the sectors concerned in the context of volunteering, particularly the study of non-profit and non-governmental organisations active in the field of sport and measurable volunteering in the field of sport. Based on the hypothesis test results, it can be concluded that due to the different political past, there was indeed some delay in developing the civil sphere in Romania. In the case of both Hungary and Romania, the role of voluntary work is significant. In sports, the role of volunteers has become unavoidable in connection with the operation of various sports associations and sports clubs and the organisation of large sports events.
Keywords: civil organisation, employment, volunteerism, Hungary, Romania
JEL codes: I31, J01, J21, L83, Z22
My research was aimed to investigate the organizational structure and the management functions of the state-accredited football academies in Hungary. The relenvance of this topic is given by the high amount of money flowing in to this sector, and the changes in the onganizational background. With the development of football, the clubs are working yet as companies, and this organistional frame requires a well planned structure. In my research I analized the operation of these organisations as companies, and I tried to answer the suggested questions about structure and leadership, with a comparative analysis of the academies highlighted by the national federation. I revealed what are the organizational problems faced by the academies, and which directions they have to follow to develop their companies, to ensure the safe, and long term operation. I choosed 3 from the 10 state-accredited academies to analyse their structure. The chosen clubs were the Várda Sport Egyesület, the Vasas Kubala Akadémia, and the Győri ETO FC youth base. It was important for me to represent an academy from each part of Hungary, to have the possibility to see some regional specialities. Through my study I investigated the responsibilities of the academy directors to see which were the key areas they had to enchance in their companies, and to define the differences in each organization. It was also my goal to reveal these differences have benefists or disadvantages for the operation. My main goal was to locate critical success factors needed for the modern, and proper operation. The research revealed that the three academies examined follow the traditional linear, functional organizational structure, but there are also differences in the definition of jobs and in the operation of the company. These differences are largely to be found in the local identity and the still ongoing development of the organizational background.
Keywords: sport management, youth academy, football, organizational structure
JEL code: Z2
Hungarian football has developed significantly since 2010, based on the state of the infrastructure or the number of footballers. As a result of the success of sports in recent years, we have been asked whether this positive change has also happened in the case of the football league. Document analysis was applied in the research, thus statistics from transfermarkt site were collected and processed. Based on this, we compared the OTP Bank League with the Czech Fortuna League. Based on the research results the Hungarian football league has gone a significant change in recent years, but it is still not among the top 30 European leagues. We can see negative trends, whether we look at the rate of foreign players or the transfer balance in recent seasons. In conclusion, we cannot talk about its general development in the case of the Hungarian football league, the club’s success is mainly due to the higher quality and market value of foreign players.
Keywords: professional football, player market, human resource management
JEL codes: Z20, Z22
Social media has become an integral part of our daily life and has completely transformed our society. While it had a social function at the beginning, it has had an increasing economic potential from the early 2010s. Our research objective was to explore the economic and social effects of social media on our society. Document analysis was applied in the research, thus relevant publications and studies were collected and processed. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that in recent years the time spent with online media consumption has increased dynamically for all generations, both globally and in Hungary. The advertising market rearranged fundamentally due to the change of media consumption, the revenue of the printed media decreased steeply while the online media increased exponentially since the economic crisis of 2008 in particular with social media. Concerns of data protection and significant tax debt came up in the last couple years despite of the social websites. Based on this fact, by establishing equal competition on the media market, the fulfilment of the tax payment and the observance of data protection rules have become reasonable for the state to take stricter actions against the global technology companies.
Keywords: social media, media consumption, advertising market, data protection
JEL Codes: M31, M37
Nowadays with cities becoming more crowded the growing ratio of public transport users is a highly important measure in the protection of our environment and the reduction of air pollution. This generates the approach that the service should become more and more user friendly, which assumes the aim of providing easy and flexible access to public transport, as an alternative in comparison with other individual travel options.The transport service fees paid by the public transport passengers by itself does not enable the service to be sustainable, because prices cannot be raised above a certain level due to the price sensitivity factor of consumers and alternative transportation solutions. In Hungary, just as in other countries of the world, the sustainability of public transportation requires a variable ratio of financial support. In order to keep the service maintainable, the support of the local governments and national governments are both essential, although the ratio can significantly differ in the Hungarian cities.
Keywords: local public transport; transportation alternatives; fare revenue; subsidy; sustainability
JEL codes: R00, R28, R48, R49
Disposal of public records is an ordinary element of document management, which is also practiced nowadays by various organizations. The arrangement of disposal depends on the own records schedules of the offices, authorities and institutions and the County Archives can review this process. This system was formed for the first time in the Hungarian history in the 1950s, when the government attempted to regulate the integrated order of disposal of public records. However the regulations were not detailed, prudent and therefore appropriate enough, so the officials could hardly distinguish the „long-term value records” and the worthless documents. Furthermore there were local cadres, who did not even know these regulations. At the same time, after the Second World War there was a huge selection of records supported by the government, because of the lack of paper. The main standing-point has become the quantity, independently of the quality of the wasted historical papers. Political aspects also appeared during the process. For example, a newsreel from 1953 promoted the disposal as it was a good opportunity to destroy the „dusty corpus delictis of the bygone world’s bureaucrats” meaning the documents originated before 1945. For these reasons a lot of valuable documents were transported to the Papermill of Szolnok as recyclable raw material. Archivist Antal Szedő wrote several reports on the large amount of important scripts he found there. For example in 1950 Szedő found 2000 kilograms of valuable documents originated from Debrecen from the 18th and 19th century. There were also cases in the County of Szolnok, where councils made irresponsible decisions during the selection. Once archivists found old and estimable documents (including protocols from the 19th century) of Jászalsószentgyörgy, Kenderes and Besenyszög in the By-product and Waste Utilization Company of Szolnok. Unfortunately not all records could be rescued, so probably a lot of relevant ones were destructed in 1950s.
Keywords:disposal of public records, archives
JEL Kód: 02 02 07
For decades, there has been an open debate among historians about whether there was democracy in our country in 1945, and if so, what those few transition years were like, and what caused the failure of democracy. The study, – instead of the democratic state of the electoral system, the rule of law, respect for freedoms, self-government and civil society organization, – attempts to highlight the presence or absence of democratic traditions, which is generally less attended to, but undoubtedly was also part of the failure of the democratic experiment in 1945.
Perhaps surprising, but the political and moral traditions of a society determine the chances for the development and survival of a democracy. In a corrupt, morally inferior society, it is more difficult to establish and operate democracy. Thus, democracy is guaranteed not only by the appearance of institutions and elections, but also by the thinking of the people living in it and by the norms that determine their behavior.
The study illustrates the peculiarity of Hungary with examples mostly from Szolnok that in the 20th century the interchanging systems were struggling with a serious deficit of democracy, and therefore no democratic traditions could be formed in the society, and in 1945 they could not go back to such antecedents. Therefore, after 1945, Hungarian society appears as corrupt as it did before 1945. Corruption has affected not only politicians but also those at lower levels of society and has engulfed society as a whole. Thus, in order to consolidate democracy, it will not be enough in the future to replace politicians and reform institutions, but the society as a whole must change too, especially in its way of thinking and behavior.
Keywords: Corruption, democracy, history of society, history of politics, history of mentality
A significant part of literatures on the present and future of industry and labor market states that in our days the fourth industrial revolution is taking place. In our study, we undertake to explore the impact of digital transformation on education and the labor market, and to examine the changes that have taken place in recent decades in the highest school qualifications of Hungarian people. Our goal is to highlight the connection between the acquired skills and industry 4.0. We have come to the conclusion that, as a result of digital development at extreme speed, the social and economic environment has undergone significant changes. The education of the Hungarian population has been steadily increasing in recent decades, with a drastic reduction in the proportion of uneducated people, while at the same time increasing the proportion of graduates of secondary and tertiary education. This is a very positive trend, because in an accelerated world, future workers need to learn new skills in order to succeed in the labor market. As a result of rapid technological progress, a number of problems that have not been solved in the education system will have to be solved. And in order to benefit the greatest advantage from the fourth industrial revolution that is taking place, industry, education and the labor market need a more coordinated functioning than ever before.
Keywords: fourth industrial revolution, digital transformation, labor market, education, highest qualification
JEL: O33, M15, J24, I21
Our research would like to draw attention to some specific aspects of demographic processes and their effects in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. Among the demographic processes, we highlighted the study of the population by age groups, internal migration and changes in the birth rate. From among the impact mechanisms of demographic processes, we dealt in detail with the assessment of the state of education. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in addition to the analysis of the qualitative changes that have taken place in the last twenty years, we considered it important to examine the connections between education, employment and the labour market, as well as the connections between education and urbanization. We found that among the phenomena subject to traditional demography, the largest change in domestic migration has occurred in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county since 2001. In the last twenty years, the migration loss has almost quadrupled, which is the highest among the domestic counties. In addition, there was a significant change in the proportions of the population by age groups. Since 2001, in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, the proportion of the 0-14 age group in the population has decreased one and a half times faster than the proportion of the oldest age group. These unfavourable processes have a significant negative effect – which are not favourable anyway – on the educational processes of the studied area.
Keywords: demography, education, loss of migration, birth rate
JEL : J19
The situation of those living on the homesteads has always been quite deprived, as they have to deal with a lot of obstacles every day, which is further aggravated by the fact that their social relations are typically low, which in many cases decreases with age as a result, social isolation with special characteristics may arise. The primary goal of my study was to assess the social isolation of the homestead inhabitants in Hajdú-Bihar County, and secondly, I sought the answer to what socio-demographic factors affect this objective state. The research was based on a survey conducted in all districts of the county, from the aggregated data of which it is possible to generalize to the degree of isolation of the homesteads. The results of the study show that every fifth homestead inhabitant of the study population can be considered socially isolated at some level.
Keywords: homestead, life on the homestead, social isolation, old, homestead janitors
Recognizing the importance of proper health, people have become increasingly responsible and aware of their health in recent decades. Maintaining health is a rewarding activity for both the employee and the employer in the long run. Investing in the health of employees is at the same time an investment in the successful operation of a company, as for most companies, the employees themselves are the key factors that determine a company’s profitability. Companies can gain a great deal by paying attention to the health of their employees, not only will it make it easier to attract and retain new workforce, but it will also increase employee efficiency. In order to preserve and improve the health of their employees, their health awareness needs to be developed, and employers can do a lot to achieve this process. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. Exploiting the potential of corporate health promotion is extremely important and necessary, as it is a long-term profitable investment for both the individual and the company, so its widespread use would be warranted.
Keywords: health, health promotion, health awareness, company, employee
JEL Kód: I12, I15
Nowadays, change has become a commonplace. Organizations are also undergoing changes that shall meet to survive in the long term. Organizational culture is one of the important factors that can contribute to a successful and timely response. However, in many cases, due to external environmental effects change also the organizational culture. In such cases it is necessary to act in a planned and conscious manner. Changing culture is a complex, complicated task. There are many approaches that list the factors of successful cultural change. These define the key of success along different ways, but some similarities can be observed. The leader has a most important role in such a situation. In this paper I introduce the basic relationships, the background and the evolution of the change, organizational culture and cultural change.
Keywords: culture, change, organizational culture, cultural change, leader
Nowadays, organizations place increasing emphasis on motivating employees, as the effectiveness of an organization is greatly influenced by the motivation level of the employees, knowing that a motivated employee can perform better and remain loyal to the organization.
In order to motivate employees effectively, it is essential that managers are aware of the various incentives available. In this study, I focus primarily on intrinsic motivation, as it is increasingly proven that extrinsic motivation tools alone are not enough to achieve the desired level of motivation for employees. My overall goal is to assess the motivational characteristics of students in my environment, including the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
In the first part of the article, I present the literature on intrinsic motivation, which presents the topic in a more and more practical way, adapting to the needs of the present age. In the following, I present my research using a shortened version of the Aspiration Index. A total of 470 people from the Faculty of Economics and Business and the Faculty of Informatics of the University of Debrecen took part in my quantitative research. For the evaluation of the results I used both descriptive and mathematical statistical methods.
After analysing the answers, I concluded that intrinsic motivation has a greater impact on students than extrinsic motivation, but money is still an essential motivational tool. I thought there was a difference in the answers of men and women and students of different programs, which led me to the conclusion that the generation should not be treated according to a scheme, it is worth developing the methods and techniques of motivation considering the individual characteristics. In conclusion, I try to formulate suggestions for managers based on the conclusions drawn from the research results. Thereby I hope that the Z generation entering the labour market in the future will be motivated more effectively.
JEL Codes: I23, I29, M12, M52
The issue of the sustainability of health care is increasingly present in public finance debates. The concerns of nations are rising health costs, an aging population, and increasing consumption of health services. The health status of the population is not only an important factor for economic growth, but also has a direct and indirect impact on tax revenues and labor market participation. The main objective of my research was to explore the impact of health expenditure on the labor market. In my study, I’ve focused on the potential labor market effects of physical activity Physival activity plays a significant role in health promotion. Physical activity improves individual’s physical abilities, including increase productivity, endurance and more effective teamwork. These factors are not only increase labor productivity, but also positively influence labor market participants and invidual employee return. I’ve been used secondary data collection during my research. The used applied method was the literature analysis. which based on domestic and international sources. The research was based on results of primary and secondary researches has carried out, in the member states of the European Union. Based on the litriture sources, I’ve found that, health can have a significant impact on labor productivity and labor supply. Health promotion contributes significantly to the success of the labor market. Physical activity, be it sport or recreation, positively influences the health of the individual’s, which is one of the key factors in returning to the labor market
Keywords: health expenditure, health promotion, physical activity, labor market
JEL: I15, J24
Adequate nutrient and fluid intake is the most important thing for the developing body, and for most young people and children, the time spent in kindergarten or school plays a decisive role, as they need to inject adequate amounts of fluid into their body during their daily lives. In our research we examined the age group of 3-14 years in the institutions of kindergartens and primary schools of Debrecen. The survey was conducted in the form of an online questionnaire, the results were evaluated with the help of the SPSS statistical program and MS Office Excel. According to our results, 69.7% of children do not consume the appropriate amount of fluid in their daily lives, which is essential for their development and attention. In the case of schoolchildren, inadequate fluid intake is common, and in order to remedy this, it would be advisable to allow institutions to consume fluid during school hours, or to encourage them by placing water machines. Based on the results, we made further recommendations.
Keywords: fluid intake, fluid consumption, water requirement, adequate intake