Disposal of public records is an ordinary element of document management, which is also practiced nowadays by various organizations. The arrangement of disposal depends on the own records schedules of the offices, authorities and institutions and the County Archives can review this process. This system was formed for the first time in the Hungarian history in the 1950s, when the government attempted to regulate the integrated order of disposal of public records. However the regulations were not detailed, prudent and therefore appropriate enough, so the officials could hardly distinguish the „long-term value records” and the worthless documents. Furthermore there were local cadres, who did not even know these regulations. At the same time, after the Second World War there was a huge selection of records supported by the government, because of the lack of paper. The main standing-point has become the quantity, independently of the quality of the wasted historical papers. Political aspects also appeared during the process. For example, a newsreel from 1953 promoted the disposal as it was a good opportunity to destroy the „dusty corpus delictis of the bygone world’s bureaucrats” meaning the documents originated before 1945. For these reasons a lot of valuable documents were transported to the Papermill of Szolnok as recyclable raw material. Archivist Antal Szedő wrote several reports on the large amount of important scripts he found there. For example in 1950 Szedő found 2000 kilograms of valuable documents originated from Debrecen from the 18th and 19th century. There were also cases in the County of Szolnok, where councils made irresponsible decisions during the selection. Once archivists found old and estimable documents (including protocols from the 19th century) of Jászalsószentgyörgy, Kenderes and Besenyszög in the By-product and Waste Utilization Company of Szolnok. Unfortunately not all records could be rescued, so probably a lot of relevant ones were destructed in 1950s.
Keywords:disposal of public records, archives
JEL Kód: 02 02 07
For decades, there has been an open debate among historians about whether there was democracy in our country in 1945, and if so, what those few transition years were like, and what caused the failure of democracy. The study, – instead of the democratic state of the electoral system, the rule of law, respect for freedoms, self-government and civil society organization, – attempts to highlight the presence or absence of democratic traditions, which is generally less attended to, but undoubtedly was also part of the failure of the democratic experiment in 1945.
Perhaps surprising, but the political and moral traditions of a society determine the chances for the development and survival of a democracy. In a corrupt, morally inferior society, it is more difficult to establish and operate democracy. Thus, democracy is guaranteed not only by the appearance of institutions and elections, but also by the thinking of the people living in it and by the norms that determine their behavior.
The study illustrates the peculiarity of Hungary with examples mostly from Szolnok that in the 20th century the interchanging systems were struggling with a serious deficit of democracy, and therefore no democratic traditions could be formed in the society, and in 1945 they could not go back to such antecedents. Therefore, after 1945, Hungarian society appears as corrupt as it did before 1945. Corruption has affected not only politicians but also those at lower levels of society and has engulfed society as a whole. Thus, in order to consolidate democracy, it will not be enough in the future to replace politicians and reform institutions, but the society as a whole must change too, especially in its way of thinking and behavior.
Keywords: Corruption, democracy, history of society, history of politics, history of mentality
A significant part of literatures on the present and future of industry and labor market states that in our days the fourth industrial revolution is taking place. In our study, we undertake to explore the impact of digital transformation on education and the labor market, and to examine the changes that have taken place in recent decades in the highest school qualifications of Hungarian people. Our goal is to highlight the connection between the acquired skills and industry 4.0. We have come to the conclusion that, as a result of digital development at extreme speed, the social and economic environment has undergone significant changes. The education of the Hungarian population has been steadily increasing in recent decades, with a drastic reduction in the proportion of uneducated people, while at the same time increasing the proportion of graduates of secondary and tertiary education. This is a very positive trend, because in an accelerated world, future workers need to learn new skills in order to succeed in the labor market. As a result of rapid technological progress, a number of problems that have not been solved in the education system will have to be solved. And in order to benefit the greatest advantage from the fourth industrial revolution that is taking place, industry, education and the labor market need a more coordinated functioning than ever before.
Keywords: fourth industrial revolution, digital transformation, labor market, education, highest qualification
JEL: O33, M15, J24, I21
Our research would like to draw attention to some specific aspects of demographic processes and their effects in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. Among the demographic processes, we highlighted the study of the population by age groups, internal migration and changes in the birth rate. From among the impact mechanisms of demographic processes, we dealt in detail with the assessment of the state of education. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in addition to the analysis of the qualitative changes that have taken place in the last twenty years, we considered it important to examine the connections between education, employment and the labour market, as well as the connections between education and urbanization. We found that among the phenomena subject to traditional demography, the largest change in domestic migration has occurred in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county since 2001. In the last twenty years, the migration loss has almost quadrupled, which is the highest among the domestic counties. In addition, there was a significant change in the proportions of the population by age groups. Since 2001, in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, the proportion of the 0-14 age group in the population has decreased one and a half times faster than the proportion of the oldest age group. These unfavourable processes have a significant negative effect – which are not favourable anyway – on the educational processes of the studied area.
Keywords: demography, education, loss of migration, birth rate
JEL : J19
The situation of those living on the homesteads has always been quite deprived, as they have to deal with a lot of obstacles every day, which is further aggravated by the fact that their social relations are typically low, which in many cases decreases with age as a result, social isolation with special characteristics may arise. The primary goal of my study was to assess the social isolation of the homestead inhabitants in Hajdú-Bihar County, and secondly, I sought the answer to what socio-demographic factors affect this objective state. The research was based on a survey conducted in all districts of the county, from the aggregated data of which it is possible to generalize to the degree of isolation of the homesteads. The results of the study show that every fifth homestead inhabitant of the study population can be considered socially isolated at some level.
Keywords: homestead, life on the homestead, social isolation, old, homestead janitors
Recognizing the importance of proper health, people have become increasingly responsible and aware of their health in recent decades. Maintaining health is a rewarding activity for both the employee and the employer in the long run. Investing in the health of employees is at the same time an investment in the successful operation of a company, as for most companies, the employees themselves are the key factors that determine a company’s profitability. Companies can gain a great deal by paying attention to the health of their employees, not only will it make it easier to attract and retain new workforce, but it will also increase employee efficiency. In order to preserve and improve the health of their employees, their health awareness needs to be developed, and employers can do a lot to achieve this process. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. Exploiting the potential of corporate health promotion is extremely important and necessary, as it is a long-term profitable investment for both the individual and the company, so its widespread use would be warranted.
Keywords: health, health promotion, health awareness, company, employee
JEL Kód: I12, I15
Nowadays, change has become a commonplace. Organizations are also undergoing changes that shall meet to survive in the long term. Organizational culture is one of the important factors that can contribute to a successful and timely response. However, in many cases, due to external environmental effects change also the organizational culture. In such cases it is necessary to act in a planned and conscious manner. Changing culture is a complex, complicated task. There are many approaches that list the factors of successful cultural change. These define the key of success along different ways, but some similarities can be observed. The leader has a most important role in such a situation. In this paper I introduce the basic relationships, the background and the evolution of the change, organizational culture and cultural change.
Keywords: culture, change, organizational culture, cultural change, leader
Nowadays, organizations place increasing emphasis on motivating employees, as the effectiveness of an organization is greatly influenced by the motivation level of the employees, knowing that a motivated employee can perform better and remain loyal to the organization.
In order to motivate employees effectively, it is essential that managers are aware of the various incentives available. In this study, I focus primarily on intrinsic motivation, as it is increasingly proven that extrinsic motivation tools alone are not enough to achieve the desired level of motivation for employees. My overall goal is to assess the motivational characteristics of students in my environment, including the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
In the first part of the article, I present the literature on intrinsic motivation, which presents the topic in a more and more practical way, adapting to the needs of the present age. In the following, I present my research using a shortened version of the Aspiration Index. A total of 470 people from the Faculty of Economics and Business and the Faculty of Informatics of the University of Debrecen took part in my quantitative research. For the evaluation of the results I used both descriptive and mathematical statistical methods.
After analysing the answers, I concluded that intrinsic motivation has a greater impact on students than extrinsic motivation, but money is still an essential motivational tool. I thought there was a difference in the answers of men and women and students of different programs, which led me to the conclusion that the generation should not be treated according to a scheme, it is worth developing the methods and techniques of motivation considering the individual characteristics. In conclusion, I try to formulate suggestions for managers based on the conclusions drawn from the research results. Thereby I hope that the Z generation entering the labour market in the future will be motivated more effectively.
JEL Codes: I23, I29, M12, M52
The issue of the sustainability of health care is increasingly present in public finance debates. The concerns of nations are rising health costs, an aging population, and increasing consumption of health services. The health status of the population is not only an important factor for economic growth, but also has a direct and indirect impact on tax revenues and labor market participation. The main objective of my research was to explore the impact of health expenditure on the labor market. In my study, I’ve focused on the potential labor market effects of physical activity Physival activity plays a significant role in health promotion. Physical activity improves individual’s physical abilities, including increase productivity, endurance and more effective teamwork. These factors are not only increase labor productivity, but also positively influence labor market participants and invidual employee return. I’ve been used secondary data collection during my research. The used applied method was the literature analysis. which based on domestic and international sources. The research was based on results of primary and secondary researches has carried out, in the member states of the European Union. Based on the litriture sources, I’ve found that, health can have a significant impact on labor productivity and labor supply. Health promotion contributes significantly to the success of the labor market. Physical activity, be it sport or recreation, positively influences the health of the individual’s, which is one of the key factors in returning to the labor market
Keywords: health expenditure, health promotion, physical activity, labor market
JEL: I15, J24
Adequate nutrient and fluid intake is the most important thing for the developing body, and for most young people and children, the time spent in kindergarten or school plays a decisive role, as they need to inject adequate amounts of fluid into their body during their daily lives. In our research we examined the age group of 3-14 years in the institutions of kindergartens and primary schools of Debrecen. The survey was conducted in the form of an online questionnaire, the results were evaluated with the help of the SPSS statistical program and MS Office Excel. According to our results, 69.7% of children do not consume the appropriate amount of fluid in their daily lives, which is essential for their development and attention. In the case of schoolchildren, inadequate fluid intake is common, and in order to remedy this, it would be advisable to allow institutions to consume fluid during school hours, or to encourage them by placing water machines. Based on the results, we made further recommendations.
Keywords: fluid intake, fluid consumption, water requirement, adequate intake
The health and health awareness are getting more and more important nowadays. By the way, there are many health trends, what could be exercise or eating habits. This is one of the more important areas, because numerous studies have confirmed that the obesity, the overweight or even musculoskeletal and chronic diseases are becoming more common in the population. There are several components of health awareness. In my research among the components I analysed the healthy, moderate eating and the consumption of nutritional supplements and vitamins. The aim of my research is to analyse the eating habits of students at the University of Debrecen. I did primary and secondary data collection during my research. The primary research will be implemented in several steps in survey. In my paper I present the results of exploratory research. Based on the first results, it can be concluded that the most students do sports and take vitamin supplements to preserve their health. Food groups were used to assess their eating habits. More than 50% of the respondents consume meat, cereals and dairy products per day. However, most students only consume vegetables or fruits several times a week, which does not meet the latest recommendations.
Keywords: health, the university students, eating habits, vitamin supplements
JEL Kód: I12
Starting from the mid-19th century numerous changes can be classified as systemic changes or shifts. The change of the landscape has shaped the ways lands were tilled and also caused changes in the economical structures. Then the Treaty of Trianon triggered ethnical, political, administrative and cultural changes with the new borders. The key issues of the most recent system change in 1989 the mobility of the society (and what threatens it) the survival of local traditions (and whether they are still followed) and the effects of being a border region of Hungary and the EU.
The peripherical situation of the region threatens with lagging. This is threat is strengthened by the regions ethnical and social situation worsened by the decline of the educational system. Self-government is also severely damaged by the loss of local control over public bodies.
Paradoxically enough, despite all system changes the life of local people improved only moderately and the region is still among the nation’s most vulnerable ones.
Keywords: system change, the treaty of Trianon, social mobility, borderlessness, peripheral situation
JEL kód: R58
This paper’s aim is to demonstrate the presence of students from Cumania Maior in the Reformed College of Debrecen from 1588 to 1850. The five towns of this region are the following: Karcag, Kisújszállás, Kunmadaras, Kunhegyes and Túrkeve. The reason why this aspect must be researched is the geographical proximity and the influence of Debrecen, because the College controlled the mentioned towns’ education; moreover, the leaders of Cumania Maior are educated in the College, too. The list of these Cumanian students is not elaborated before, so further research is necessary and worthy. The paper introduces the presence of Cumania Maior in the education system, centered in Debrecen, and the students’ frequency, further lives and works of them. The research is based on Series Studiorum in schola Debrecina Helveticae Confessionis Addictorum and the database of János Bakóczi. The database, which was created from the former two, is completed with the individual towns’ Reformed Church records. There are 369 students whose data was put into a 17-column table, and this table was the base of the diagrams. After deducting conclusions, it is considered that the students of Cumania Maior were an essential part of this education-system which is shown in the students’ further lives.
Key words: Cumania Maior, students, Reformed College of Debrecen, Pre-Modern Age, reformed education history
Jel cod: B40
The aim of our study is to provide an overview of the social situation in Hajdú-Bihar County. Hajdú-Bihar County, the economic, educational, scientific and cultural center of the Northern Great Plain region. Its conditions are favorable for fulfilling its role, and it’s economic, educational, commercial, and cultural and health relations are significant beyond the national borders. In connection with Hajdú-Bihar County, it is important to mention the utilization of its logistics role and the role of the regional knowledge base. Debrecen city is the center of Hajdú-Bihar County, this is the second largest city in Hungary in terms of population. For decades Debrecen has been an outstanding role of Hajdú-Bihar County, and the city has a socio-economic impact on the whole region as a regional center. Among the above-mentioned impacts, this study focuses on the social impacts of Hajdú-Bihar County and the calculations based on local and national statistics to support and analyze this impact. The social impacts were examined primarily from a demographic point of view (population, gender, age and composition by educational level, qualifications, employment, income conditions) compared to previous years and national data.
Keywords: Hajdú-Bihar County, society, population, employment, income situation,
JEL code: R23
The aim of my PHD research is to give a comprehensive picture of about the Hungarian electronic public administration’s legal regulation and its solutions by “exploring” the international legal regulation in the century of 21. I would like to pay particular attention to the changes generated by eGovernment, such as for example: the changes and development in the persons’ role, rights and obligations. The question arises that when we speak of electronic procedure, we only emphasize one type of communication, a procedural feature, or a separate type of procedure. In the context of this essay, I would like to introduce my hypotheses and research aspects that have been discovered at the beginning of my research, and the more important concepts of the electronic public administration, which significantly determine the course and directions of my research progress. In this research first of all, I prepare my hipotesis, draft my researching aspects, furthermore at the hungarian law environment I analyse the electronic public administration’s concepts, such as basic principles, the electronic public administration’s persons and technical concepts.
Keywords: electronic public administration, Eüsztv., e-administration, SZEÜSZ, public administration procedure
JEL Codes: H83, K19, K23
The subject of this paper focuses on the hungarian regulation of the disciplinary law of the civil service in Dualism, in particular how the dogmatic elements of this legal institution evolved, developed and expanded in the 19th century. It is also important to know that this process because the disciplinary procedure we know today – and especially its many aspects of warranty – came into being at this time, but not without any professional debate. The research focuses on the administrative area of Debrecen and the enforcement and application of disciplinary law describing the disciplinary procedure of 23rd Act of 1886 through a case. (This act regulated the disiplinary procedure between 1886 and 1929). In addition to what has already been described, the ’rudimentary’ definitions of the public service relationship is also presented as a mentioned placement of the liability system of the civil service, and containing public service disciplinary liability. Moreover this paper present the disiplinary system’ s essence based on the 42nd Act of 1870 and 7th Act of 1876.
Keywords: Dualism, legal history, administrative law, liability system of civil service, disciplinary proceedings
The objective of developing a geographical area is, first and foremost, the effective operation, the provision of an appropriate place to live and the well-being of its inhabitants, through the creation of appropriate economic, cultural, technological and ecological conditions. According to Ritchie-Crouch (2003), a tourism destination is competitive, if it has the capability for increasing tourism revenues, attracting tourists continuously, providing visitors with memorable experiences that meet their expectations, and furthermore, for profit generation. At the same time, however, the well-being of the local population must be maintained or increased by the preservation of resources for the future generations (i.e. keeping principles of sustainable development).
The dynamic growth in tourism demand is also leading to increased competition between destinations. Intense competition also poses a challenge for the tourism marketing organization in the target area in terms of image building, product development and communication. However, the successful development of tourism can only be achieved through a well-functioning, well-cooperating system. Cooperation is needed both at regional and tourism product level.
Although the slogan of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County as a tourism brand, the “Heart of the Great Plain” meets all the requirements for mottos, the recognition by travellers must be validated with market survey. A large sample (n = 1037) survey was conducted among domestic tourists visiting the destination in summer 2019. 71.6% of the respondents identify the county well by the brand “Heart of the Great Plain”, and the proportion of bad answers was trifling.
In addition to the recognition of the tourism brand, the research also covered the assessment of the county’s various tourism attractions. Twenty-nine tourism attractions were evaluated by the respondents as to whether they were visited or known. Based on the survey results, the well-known supply elements are Lake Tisza, Abádszalók, Jászberény Zoo and Botanical Garden, Cserkeszőlő, the spa resort, Tiszavirág Festival and RepTár, Interactive Aviation Museum in Szolnok. Although the awareness of county tourism attractions is considered favourable, twelve attractions had not been visited by 10% of non-county respondents until the date of surveying, and at least one quarter of respondents in each attraction were negative for a possible future visit.
The conclusions of the research point out that by exploiting and developing the existing attractions in the destination, tourism innovation is needed to provide complex experience packages to reach a wide range of tourist segments. This can lead to a significant increase in the number of visitors.
Keywords: tourism destination, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County, brand
JEL: Z32 Tourism and Development
Distillation has centuries-old traditions in Hungary. A brief international outlook will also present the private distillation practices of the surrounding countries. Pálinka is a Hungaricum product produced by exclusively in commercial distilleries. In our country it is possible to make in subcontractdistilleries or at home, however, the product made in this way can only be called distillate and cannot be marketed. Over the last ten years, the legal framework governing the production of pálinka has changed very often, affecting the operators in the sector in different ways. Statistical information on each type of distilling will be presented, with special emphasis on the tax exemption period. Using known data from subcontract distilling, it was found that a HUF 52.1 billion deficit arose from the abolition of excise duty. The 0% excise tax resulted in a boom in subcontract distillation, with a neutral, partly negative effect on commercial distilling. The number of home distillers started to grow extraordinarily, and after the tax was restored, about 50,000 to 70,000 people disappeared from the ranks of subcontractors. Based on secondary sources, I have identified problems in the sector that need to be resolved. Furthermore, I outline the opportunities that are available but are not being used enough.
Keywords: pálinka, subcontract distilling, home distilling, commercial distilling, excise tax
The emergence of sharing economy into the tertiary sector has changed the balance of power and redefining the way of achieving it. The purpose of the study aims at introducing the sharing economy, one of the most popular economic mechanisms at present, with special regard to its nomenclature and definitions. The spreading of trading platforms in services sector has created a wide variety of virtual marketplaces, where consumers and suppliers contact each other directly according to their interests. It focuses on the economic markets of the Hungarian and Romanian sharing economy to obtain a clear picture of its growing range and forms. The paper includes both primary and secondary research, literary sources and the open-access database of the European Commission, which is analysed by the SPSS 24 software. Sharing economies have been studied from both consumer and service provider perspectives, surveyed the proportion of users and suppliers, the advantages and disadvantages, the reasons for not using services offered as such, and the motives behind the participation of suppliers on sharing economy platforms was carried out in Hungary and Romania and the EU-28 members. As far as we know, the analysis of this field has not been carried out.
Keywords: sharing economy, collaborative consumption, spreading of sharing economy, SPSS analysis
JEL: D16, M13
The estimated market value of domestic land in terms of scale reach some thousand billions HUF, but the estimation of the real natural and economical value need a sophisticated methodological approach. The official methodology laid on legal basis (see decree 54/1997 Min. of Agriculture) was shaped for collateral valuation fulfilled to requirements of mortgage institutes. In the years since, at the socio-economical level many things have changed, which therefore made it necessary for re-thinking, accurate or change of the methods comprised in the mentioned decree. Considering the observations of the last two decades, accordingly with international guidelines and domestic legislation, the authors try to draw up recommendations for updating land valuation rules and methods both for legislators and real appraisal professionals.
Keywords: land valuation, land price, directives, valuation principles
2019 issue 4 no 1.
We can find several studies about employees performance in the management literature, but it remains an interesting topic in researches in the future, due to the increasing worldwide labour shortage. Finding the suitable employees is becoming more prominent among companies due to the increasing competition.
The main aim of this study is to test the capability of selection tests (ability, readiness, competence tests) to predict employee performance. In order to answer this question employees (N=50) from a Debrecen based company in service sector have been analysed. General intelligence and conflict handling style have been estimated, as well as the evaluation of the employees by their supervisors. Some biographical data were used as control variables. The statistical analysis was based on descriptive statistics and multivariate, linear regression models.
Based on the results we can concluded that being a female, having a university degree or the 1-3 years of employment at the company were in positive relationship with the employees communication skills significantly; the conflict handling style ’problemsolver’ tended to increase the expected value of the problem-solving skills; general intelligence was positively connected to the expected level of the measured job-specific skills; while no significant linear relationship was detected between in MS Office skills and other variables.
Keywords: Employee performance, Employee selection, Measurement and evaluation, Competences
Our historical knowledge is based on historians’ research of written documents. These written historical documents are preserved by archives. The biggest of our country’s public collections is the National Archives of Hungary which was established in 2012 by merging the national and county acrhives.
For many decades the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County Archives have collected the administrative documents of the county’s settlements. Various offices, courts, schools and state-owned companies are required by law to submit their records of historical value to the archives after fifteen years. However individuals, associations and parties are not required by law to pass on their private records or photographs to any of the archives.
In addition to the official sources the private documents can also provide a number of valuable insights for a more detailed presentation and understanding of history.
This bried study shows the changes of private records gifting in JNSZ County, the reasons behind the change, what documents were offered to them and are they important for archival research.
Keywords: Culture, Sociology of social values and lifestyle
Performance management is becoming more and more important today in the everyday-life of a company or any organizations. Nowadays, the topic of performance evaluation has importance not only in the business sector but also in the public sector. Not only the interests of an organization have to be highlighted, but also those of the employees. In addition to this, in case of public service providers, their customers may have influence on performance perception. Literature in the field of performance management is very diverse but it can be stated that public service organizations have come to the forefront. In this paper a basic research is presented that contributes to the formulation of my research hypothesis.
Keywords: Performance Management; Healthcare; Social Innovation, BSC; Public sector
In today’s sport the mental preparation’s role is emerging in addition to physical training Sports psychology is being implemented and applied widely both in invidiual and team sports. From the athletes perspective one of the most important factor is that they have the right and valid self-knowledge as their performance is highly affected by this input. The main objective of my research was to reveal the self assessment attributes among the young football players. The children performed three tasks during the research; juggling, passing on gymnastics bench and then reaching the finish line after dribbling of slalom were shown. My hypotesis is that the children tend to overestimate their performance and skills before performing tasks.
I’ve been used primary data collection during my research. The used applied analytical method was the one sample t-test; based on this method, we can say that the underestimation have had a higher rate when measuring juggling (which contradict to the hypotesis) while the children overestimated their performance in the slalom and the passing tasks (in these two tasks we can confirm the hypotesis).
Keywords: Self-esteem, Performance, Junior footballers, Sport psychology
On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the public education act of 1868, this study deals with the architectural aspect of the enforcement of the act, and more closely with the school buildings. However, when discussing the topic, it is important to mention Pál Gönczy (1817–1892), who was one of the authors of the public education act. It is also important that he was born in Hajdúszoboszló, and he was that person, who made the first design book in 1870, which contained the architectural-professional regulations for the public school buildings. In this study, besides this sample design book, its impact and the subsequent sample designs will be discussed, up to the 1920s Klebelsberg program. The regional aspect of the theme is the history of the higher elementary school for boys that was established in 1898 in Hajdúszoboszló, and its building was built in 1899.
Keywords: public school buildings, public education act, Hajdúszoboszló, Pál Gönczy
In this study, I would like to present the criminal law practice in the period of neoabsolutism of the Imperial Royal County Court of Debrecen. In this period, the Austrian Penal Code was in force in Hungary, so the primary aspect of my research is how the provisions of the Code were enforced in practice. On the other hand, I try to answer questions about which crimes have occurred most often, what were the most common types of offenses, what characterized the perpetrators’ image, and finally what the penalties were imposed in the specified period.
Keywords: criminal law, history of law, legal practice
Due to political reforms in 1990 the geopolitical and geoeconomical situation of the East-Central European countries has changed. In the very first years of the new political era these countries focused on the integration to the European Union. In 2004 the biggest accession ever opened the door to ten new member states resulting a more wider, more complex partnership in Europe. After a decade of their integration it was clear that East-Central European countries have benefited from the membership, in economical and many other ways. They can express their interests much stronger as members of the EU then before their memberships. But their perception regarding deepening the integration is in change. There is a need to express their opinion much stronger. As a result, the geoeconomic interpretation of economic integration has become much broader in sense than in earlier periods, and sometimes involves far more thought than traditional interpretation.
Keywords: geoeconomy, European Union, East-Central Europe, regime change, Eastern enlargment of the EU
Debrecen style honey cake making has been registered in 2014 in the collection of Hungarian values of Debrecen and Hajdú – Bihar county. Thus it is worth and reasonable to study the roots and history of honey cake making and especially Debrecen style honey cake making, as well as the future perspectives of the profession. The evolution process of honey cake as a traditional open air market product to its many current forms was long and exciting. Operation of the National Value Pyramid, history of honey cake making was investigated and honey cake makers working in Debrecen and Hajdú – Bihar County are introduced in the present paper. The efforts of the Folk Art Association of Hajdú – Bihar County have been summarised, including how it promotes the honey cake – with its thousand year tradition – to remain a popular product and how it supports its members. While innovation is always a key issue for professionals, ensuring that this product is made of (traditional) healthy ingredients stays popular are the foci of Hungarian honey cake makers.
Keywords: folk art, traditions, honey cake, commerce
Goat milk production is a dynamic and continuously expanding branch, which determines the life of millions of people. Goat milk and the cheese made from it, was venerated in ancient Egypt, with some Pharaohs supposedly placing these foods among the other treasures in their burial tombs. Goat milk and manufactured goat milk products play significant role in human nutrition. Starving and malnourished people in the developing world consume more goat milk than cow milk. Goat milk plays an important role in the treatment of certain health problems. The gastronomic needs of connoisseur and health conscious consumers, which is a growing market share in many developed countries, can be met by goat milk and manufactured goat milk products. The aim of our study is to review the most relevant international and Hungarian studies, overview the regional situation of (dairy) goat breeding, goat milk production and consumption as well as the nutritional benefits of goat milk and manufactured goat milk products to human health.
Keywords: goat milk-products, human nutrition, trends
A 2017-es konferencia cikkeinek teljes gyűjteménye.
A 2016-os konferencia cikkeinek teljes gyűjteménye.
The mission of higher education in Europe and worldwide has been undergoing changes concerning its responsibilities and the requirements it has to satisfy. Making use of the experience gained from international benchmarking, the research paper investigates those business models that the institutions and their strategic partners can use in order to facilitate their market oriented incubation activities. In our research we aimed to develop an operating model such that is able to meet the challenges set by the competition on the international marketplace. We used the Canvas business framework model as a method to describe the business logic, – value creation – and functional elements of a market actor, and the interrelationships that exist between those factors.
Keywords: Canvas, incubation, Business Model
The new borders play a key role in the geopolitical situation not only from the point of view to define what a border is and demarcation, particularly in the analytical process of the changes taking place in the Central European and Eastern European regions. The establishment and functioning of the new European Eastern border is related directly to the specific geopolitical situation, which also determines its specificity and parameters. It is indisputable that the new structure of the Central European and Eastern European geopolitical regions will fundamentally change its relationship to the area, region and its borders. Essentially, the new geopolitical configuration of the European continent leads to the fragmentation of the old Central and Eastern European region.
The border, first of all, is a physical concept and it is the boundary of national territories. It is understandable that in this situation we are analyzing a new border, which a being formed, which is not the same as Europe’s cultural borders, a new border that to our opinion is not a simple linear space or spatial boundary, which in our case separates the regions of Central Europe and Eastern Europe quite sharply. It is the co-called transparency of the borders, examination of “permeability”, that allows us to study the new borders not only as a linear space between neighboring countries, but as a system that takes into consideration cultural, ideological features, using civilization and religious criteria’s.
Keywords:Europa, border, country, region,geopolicy.
The public collection is a collective term, which contains national, local or public library’s, archives, picture and sound archives and museums. These institutions are collecting and systemizing document and allow them for use. There are public collections in ecclesiastical ownership and there are valuable private collections, which in some fortune cases serve scientific research in public collections. So is it in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, where many public collections contain the history of the region, including the lives of the inhabitants, their naturals and the economic conditions. There are other serious sources besides the well know county library, archives and museum. The goal of this study is to introduce these not well-known sources for bigger audience. For an area where the border has been severely changed by the history, the importance of cross-border archives, virtual books and data are more relevant to researchers. Among national database this study presents a number of local portals such as the “olvass-sokat.hu” or the “Byzantinohungarica” portal which created by the Greek Catholic Heritage Research Group.
Keywords: regional research, public collections, information supply, databases
The modern Hungarian judicial system was based on Act IV of 1869 – which regulated the judicial power – and the acts of 1871, which stipulated the formation of courts of first instance. Operating of courts needed suitable and modern court buildings besides personal conditions. The creation of this court buildings took decades. Following the construction period of the country courts (around 1880–1910), the state concentrated on the decent placement of district courts. From the 1910s, it was seen that new district court buildings were built in the country. This process continued in the period between the two World Wars. We can also meet with expert architects in this field. One of them – perhaps less known by the general public – was Ferenc Orbán, an architect-master, who noted the design of a number of district courts in the 1920s. His buildings can be found in our narrower region: in Debrecen, Berettyóújfalu, Hajdúböszörmény and Hajdúszoboszló. This short interdisciplinary study focuses on these and the work of the architect.
Keywords: history of courts, legal history, history of architecture, Ferenc Orbán, Debrecen
The small-plot experiment with sewage sludge compost (SSC) was started in the spring of 2003. Soil type is acidic Arenosol at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, University of Debrecen, in the NE part of Hungary. The applied SSC contained 40% of sewage sludge, 25% of straw, 30% of rhyolite and 5% of bentonite. Four treatments in five blocks have been conducted, where the SSC was applied at a rate of 0, 9, 18 and 27 t ha-1 and then was ploughed into the soil. Treatments were repeated in 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015. Test plants were maize (Zea mays L.), triticale (x Triticosecale x Wittmack) and green pea (Pisum sativum L.) followed each other in a crop rotation every year. Composite soil samples were mixed from 5 subsamples in each plot from 0-30 and 30-60 cm soil layers after harvesting of test plants. Experimental results showed that composted sewage sludge application had positive effects on the chemical properties of the soil, especially the increase of pH and humus content.
Keywords: long-term experiment, sewage sludge compost, chemical properties of soil, bentonite, Arenosol
In this essay will present the activity of the community culture in the National Archives of Hungary Bekes County Archive. The new strategy of the opening has started in the middle of the 2000’s. During the review of the results I am focusing on our programs, cultural activities, our educational works with regards to the essencial base from the history. At first since 2006 our annual conferences, our gallery in the head building in Gyula and our temporary exhibitions has been providing insight into our daily works in the archive, our scientific works and it makes visible our collections, the actual documents of our history. We’ve had the opportunities to join to some widespread program both in Bekes County and in the country. In these events we have introduced ourselves to new audiences. Meantime we have built a fruitful relationship with the local and county press, hence besides the coverages from our events we have found a new platforms (newspapers, online media, television) for our cultural activities. Our education activities has formed in line with our other programs. If so our prime purpose is the familiarizaton of our institution to younger ranges but we also have created lessons about specific historical topics based on our documents. Often the groups are spread good reputation on our works, or – like the librarians from the city library – returned. After a visit they ofter asked a lesson on the subject of the actual summer camp for elementary school pupils. Essencally the Bekes County Archive have had a successful past decade. We are looking forward the next period, and trying to stand our’s ground in the fields of the comunity culture which is more and more come to the front in the National Archives of Hungary.