1. Institutional and consumer market aspects of regional tourism development along the Lower-Ipoly

Institutional and consumer market aspects of regional tourism development along the Lower-Ipoly

Kóródi Márta, Mondok Anita, Sánta Ádám Kálmán

Depending on the macro-level management of tourism, whether a top-down or a bottom-up or integrated tourism development method is applied, the assessment of the organizational and consumer market is an integral part of the status quo analysis. Coordination the stakeholders of the organizational market could be the task of a TDM, however, the linear extent and network of settlements, the specific location, and the unfavourable demographic characteristics raise a number of problems. The study summarizes the results of a research to make foundation for a tourism development concept, outlining the similarities and differences between the two stakeholder groups regarding the tourism needs of the given area. It also covers the preferred types of tourism and the services that make up each tourism product (absolute value, ranking and the ratio to the average). The Lower-Ipoly region can occupy a special position in the tourism market in some aspects (water, bicycle and ecotourism) by combining special product and destination development, as well as experience management and perhaps visitor management elements. Although the limited resources of the organizational market confine the realization of consumer ideas, the success of development is influenced by the demarcation of boundaries, which is a qualitative rather than a quantitative issue and is related to segmentation and differentiated supply. The organizational functions of the destination management are performed by the leading organization of the project currently being implemented. Thus, due to the overlapping maintenance periods, if the projects are sufficiently coordinated, continuous tourism coordination will take place even in the absence of a TDM organization. The results of the consumer market research show that solving the problems arising from limited natural resources requires a significant change in market behaviour not only for tourism service providers, but also for tourists.

Keywords: destination development, institutional market, consumer market, segmentation, differentiated supply

JEL Code: Z32


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/1

Impact management of overtourism in European capitals

Impact management of overtourism in European capitals

Szőllős-Tóth Andrea

The main objective of this study is to analyse the cases of the most visited European capitals and the ones most affected by the overtourism phenomenon through the analysis of tourism in Europe. The focus of my work is to identify the actions planned or being implemented to overcome the difficulties caused by the overcrowding of tourists. I present international best practices from European capitals that have proved to be good in dealing with the situation and cases of destinations that are prepared for the emergence of overtourism based on the measures that have been implemented. Overtourism was a serious problem for many destinations before the pandemic, and once the pandemic ends, it is likely that the crowding caused by the presence of tourists will become common again. By using the results of this research, destinations can be better prepared for the arrival of tourists, with suggestions for solutions that can be used in the destinations if the number of tourists approaches or reaches the limits of social or environmental tolerance again.

Keywords: tourism, overtourism, sustainable tourism, capital, Europe

JEL-code: L83, Z32, Q56


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/2

3. The impact of events in and around Kisvárda on tourism in the region

The impact of events in and around Kisvárda on tourism in the region

Tőkészki Panna Lilla, Csipkés Margit

The main goal of our research is to present the impact of the festivals organized in and around the city of Kisvárda on tourism. The main direction was given by the Kisvárda Festival of Theaters, which has been organized for more than 30 years, as it has greatly contributed to the development of tourism in Kisvárda in recent years. In our research material, we briefly present the festival tourism in Hungary, and we also review the relationship between tourism and the festival, taking into account the COVID-19 pandemic that has been present for the past few years.

We also consider the presentation of the research topic important because the tourist offer of the city of Kisvárda and its region is growing, there are many tourist attractions in Kisvárda that make it worth visiting the city and its surroundings. In addition to examining the impact of the Kisvárda Festival of Hungarian Theaters on tourism, we also conducted a questionnaire survey in order to find out the opinions of visitors to events in Kisvárda. In our opinion, festivals can have a significant positive impact on the economy, society and cultural life.

Keywords: festival, event, tourism, attraction, society

JEL code: Z32, Z30


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/3

4. Development characteristics of small villages in Hungary after the turn of the millennium

Development characteristics of small villages in Hungary after the turn of the millennium

Kurucz Lajos

The aim of the study is to describe some characteristic features of Hungarian small villages. Based on a literature review, the topic of a comparative analysis of settlements with different populations has been the subject of research in Hungary for about half a century. Laws had been enacted since the 1970s to reduce the spatial differences. However, despite the national’s intention, the differences between the individual regions and settlement groups continued to increase. This is also reflected in the fact that under the current development policy legislation – Government Decree 290/2014. (XI. 26.) – small villages have a higher than average chance of being included in disadvantaged districts. The aim of my study is to outline the situation of municipalities with a population of less than half a thousand people by analyzing statistical data and presenting the results of my own questionnaire survey. These municipalities make up more than a third of the Hungarian settlements population, while their population just only 2.2% of the national population. In the course of the analysis, I focus primarily on demographic processes and the development of communal infrastructure. These developments (sewage network, pipeline gas supply) could highly improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of small settlements. Despite all these investments, emigration is significant due to the lack of jobs, as a result of which the aging of local society continues. The importance of the regional embeddedness of the settlements is shown by the fact that while the situation of the small settlements of Veszprém, Vas and Zala county can be said to be relatively favorable, the small villages of Baranya, Somogy and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén can be considered disadvantaged in almost all indicators.

Keywords: Rural areas, Infrastructure, Demography

JEL Code: J10, O18, R58


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/4

5. The possibility of making urban public transport more attractive

The possibility of making urban public transport more attractive

Tóth Szabolcs

Urban transport today sets a significant challenge to its residents. The increase in passenger car traffic, which has increased significantly in recent years due to the pandemic situation, also shows that the population is rather committed to private transport then using public transport. In order to create a livable urban life, urgent steps need to be taken to ensure that urban mobility remains sustainable as expected by the population. Fo this, several tools are available to city leaders. These could include the use of micromobility devices, the introduction of sharing-based systems and measures to restrict car traffic. In addition, the development of public transport and the diversion of the population in this direction are obvious. Most major cities today are working in this direction by developing these networks and services in order to improve the accessibility and attractiveness of these transport systems. Several major European cities have made public transport partially or completely free in order to maximize public use. This effort is not unknown in Hungary either, as a significant part of the population has been able to use this form of transport free of charge for several decades. However, if full free service is introduced, it will be necessary to examine its effects from an economic and social point of view.

Keywords: local public transport; free travel; sustainability

JEL codes: R40, R42, R48, R49


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/5

6. Questionnaire analysis of the situation of the artisans of the Debrecen Folk Crafts Festival in 2021

Questionnaire analysis of the situation of the artisans of the Debrecen Folk Crafts Festival in 2021

Kardosné Riz Zsuzsa

Debrecen Folk Craft Festival faithfully preserves the cultural, social and economic traditions of Debrecen. As a tourist event, the festival provides an opportunity to learn about the centuries-old folk crafts, the artisans, their tools and their products. The traditional fair character of the event is given by the street stalls and the possibility to buy the products. The fair is part of Debrecen’s history (it has had the right to hold fairs since the early 1400s), which has given a strong impetus to its economic development. The town’s geographical and social characteristics made it a market centre. On the one hand, it was built at the junction of land routes and, on the other, it was owned by lords of national rank who helped to create a farming town and a local society of artisan-traders. In Debrecen, handicraft and trade fair past is still preserved in street names such as Külsővásártér, Mester street, Faraktár street, Csapó street, which is also the venue of the 11th Folk Craft Festival. The aim of the research is to investigate the extent to which Debrecen Folk Craft Festival is a Debrecen event, as well as the composition of the local artisans still operating (craft, age, gender, experience), their business strengths and weaknesses, and their presence on the internet. This representative quantitative survey was carried out with 23 representatives of 15 crafts (leatherworkers, potters, beadworkers, embroiderers, straw weavers, enamelers, furniture makers, woodcarvers, textile toy makers, honeycake makers, etc.) using a self-completion questionnaire. The survey is representative as all participants completed the questionnaire.  Since folk crafts are part of the Debrecen identity, and the local culture, their survival is in the interest of the city. The survey covered the forms of their businesses, their sales opportunities, their financial background, etc. The structure of the paper: Introduction presents the festival itself, Material and Methodology, Results and Conclusions chapters describe the questionnaire survey’s results. Conclusions of the research: the cultural and social impact of the Folk Craft Festival is significant, especially through the promotion of folk art heritage, community organisation and its impact on consumer habits. There is still a wide variety of folk crafts in Debrecen, but the masters of some folk crafts are ageing. Traditionally, these one-man businesses still prefer to sell at fairs, because they are weak in marketing and advertising, and nearly a third of them have online presence on the association’s website only. Their strength is their expertise, with 40, 50 or even 60 years of experience. The majority of products are qualified by the Hungarian Heritage House, which protects the masters from having their products copied and mass-produced by others.

Keywords: Debrecen, folk crafts, festival, questionnaire

Jel-code: Z10


7. Regional differences in the distribution of Industry 4.0 applications in the SME sector

Regional differences in the distribution of Industry 4.0 applications in the SME sector

Nagy Richárd

Since 2014, the European Commission has been measuring the development of the digital economy and society with the DESI indicator. The DESI 2020 report shows that the Covid-19 epidemic has made digital tools even more important for countries’ economies. Hungary is ranked 21st out of 28 EU Member States on the DESI indicator which is measuring the digital economy and society. Improving the competitiveness of Hungarian companies in the international market depends on the extent of their digitalisation. The aim of this research is to provide an overview of the financial instruments and resources available to support the implementation of an advanced digitalisation systems at Hungarian companies in the past EU budget period. Two calls for proposals were available in the 2014-2020 funding period in Hungary in the context of advanced digitisation: GINOP 1.2.8-17 and GINOP 3.2.6-8.2.4-17. A regional comparative analysis between the two calls was not feasible because the funding intensities for eligible costs are different for the two calls, therefore the calls were evaluated separately. The analysis found that the reasons for the low willingness to apply are assumed to include the lack of economic and social potential in rural areas, with the main reasons being the lack of own resources to invest and the lack of a workforce with the right digital skills.

Keywords: digitalisation, Industry 4.0, GINOP

JEL code: M15


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/7

8. Honey consumption and purchasing habits in Hajdú-Bihar county

Honey consumption and purchasing habits in Hajdú-Bihar county

Vida Viktória, Feketéné Ferenczi Alíz

The main objective of our research is to present the market situation and conditions of the Hungarian beekeeping sector from the perspective of consumers. We considered it appropriate to present the beekeeping market because the European Union is the second largest producer of honey in the world, and Hungary ranks third in the EU in terms of the honey production volume. The changes in global and EU trade, market trends and changes in consumer habits are significant influencing factors in terms of domestic conditions. The market situation is presented through a review of the relevant domestic and foreign literature, and we analysed statistical databases to examine the topic (data provision of beekeeping programs of the European Union member states, CSO, OMME, Statista database and reports). The consumption of honey by the Hungarian population has been slowly increasing year by year, but we are still below the European Union average. Honey is our basic food of animal origin; it has many beneficial properties, so the study of consumption and purchasing habits is an important issue. To analyse the consumer and purchasing habits, we chose the questionnaire survey method. In our research, we sought the answer to how and in which direction honey consumption and purchasing habits have changed in Hungary today, and whether there are any regional difference based on the answers of the respondents. The online questionnaire was structured according to the 4Ps of the marketing mix; accordingly, we had questions about the product itself (honey), its price, place of purchase, promotion opportunities and the way and frequency of honey consumption. The results obtained from the survey were evaluated, subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and then analysed for correlations based on background variables including gender, age, education, type of settlement, and county. Responses were evaluated using the SPSS 22.0 data analysis and statistics program. The results of the sample are not representative, but they well represent and summarize the situation.

Keywords: honey, honey consumption, purchasing habits, healthy lifestyle

JEL Code: M31


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/8

9. Exploring changes in employee competencies based on analysis of data from a job search page

Exploring changes in employee competencies based on analysis of data from a job search page

Pirohov-Tóth Barbara

By analyzing the job offers on the KarrierM job search portal, the research sheds light on the new competence needs appearing on the labor market. In order to successfully explore this, I performed a comparative analysis between the most important competencies during the first (Pirohov-Tóth-Kiss, 2021) (N=363) and the second (current) (N= 332) examination. Taking into account the employment data of the KSH with the help of analysis, we examine the development of the most important key competences and specialized areas based on the data of the second examination, and the regional results were presented. I also explored the role of foreign language knowledge as a workplace competency and other expectations appearing in advertisements. Based on the results of the research, the most important key competencies include working independently and in a team, as well as reliability.

Keywords: job advertisement analysis, labor market, competence

JEL Codes: J24, J28, J40



10. Is an education programme based on social innovation sustainable?

Is an education programme based on social innovation sustainable?

Varga Krisztina, Kucsma Daniella

Social sustainability is a key concept that can be identified as an important factor in the processes supporting the satisfaction of the current needs of humanity and the preservation of the environment and natural resources for future generations. Social innovation initiatives are solutions that support a sustainable future and can be suitable for mitigating differences at the regional level, increasing regional competitiveness, and helping to catch up. The reduction and elimination of educational inequalities requires long-term solutions that require innovative cooperation between the actors of society. Within the framework of the study, we examine the examples of social innovation efforts in education and the effects of these practices, during which we pay special attention to issues of social sustainability. Our goal is to present social innovation programs and good practices that can be identified as equalizing education solutions and can be adapted and sustained in order to increase well-being while taking into account local needs and demands as well as the characteristics of the given community. Within the framework of the study, the examined good practices are presented in a structured form, emphasizing the key elements that ensure social sustainability.

Keywords: social innovation, sustainability, educational program, good practice

JEL Codes: O35, I24, Q01


11. Working conditions at the Cannery of Debrecen according to the house organ’s news

Working conditions at the Cannery of Debrecen according to the house organ’s news

Kovács Tünde

The Cannery of Debrecen started their production in 1969 but the ceremonial handover only took place a year later. One hard argument for the company to be placed in Debrecen was that the city could provide the complete labour force for the completion of the production appropriation of the current plan. This was not always successful, despite the fact that they wanted to solve the employment of women and released agricultural workers with the establishment of the new factory. The management of the factory took different measures to attain and keep the employees, which was not an easy task because fluctuation was high since the working circumstances were unfavourable and the work was seasonal. The increase of domestic demand and export demand for canned products made the management of the company to reach for their “hidden reserves”. One possible form of this was the “socialist brigade movement”, who advertised work competitions. We can also see in the brigade journal entries that the socialist brigades took extra assignments, from these entries we can get an insight into the lives of the employees and what was expected from them.

Keywords: Cannery of Debrecen (DEKO), socialist brigade, work competition

JEL COde: 02 02 07



12. The concept of Central Europe in the post-war Soviet academic discourse

The concept of Central Europe in the post-war Soviet academic discourse

The article explores the scope of use and the level of terminological and conceptual maturity of “Central Europe” in the post-war Soviet academic discourse. While there is a current in the international debate examining the notion in substance, an investigation of its usage in distinct academic languages can help to render the discussion more practice-oriented. The present work is based on a review of authoritative sources of the period, such as encyclopediae and academic dictionaries as well as publications of prominent Soviet scholars in the disciplines where the notion found its application (geography, history, etc.). The influence of foreign publications and the tendency to employ “Central Europe” as a schematic mental placement for distinct phenomena are found pivotal for the term development. The article contributes to the attempts of delimiting the region, through evincing shared understandings of and around it, and looking into the continuity between the Soviet and the post-Soviet perspectives.

Keywords: geoconcept, regionalization, terminology

JEL Code: N94



1. Liquidity situation of the sports enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar country

Liquidity situation of the sports enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar country

Koroknay Zsuzsa, Bácsné Bába Éva

Sport is one of the industries with the greatest growth potential in the world. As in any other sector, there is a growing need for measurability in sport as well as numerical support for decisions. One of the determinative decision criteria of owners and leaders is financial data, which influences the operation of the company or the assessment of investment opportunities. In present research, we examined the liquidity situation of sports enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. We used the OPTEN database, which contains annual reporting data for sports enterprises. In order to be more manageable, sports enterprises were grouped by revenue categories and scope of activity, along which we managed the obtained liquidity datas by aggregating and averaging. Based on the results, it can be concluded that most sports enterprises operating in the county sports sector are privately owned micro-enterprises, which have a lower turnover category and the main activity is 931 Sports services. Their liquidity position is on average favourable, they show high growth potential and they are characterized by risk-averse behaviour.

Keywords: sports, sports economic, sports organizations, liquidity

JEL code: G32, Z21


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/1

2. Survey of the qualification of fitness trainers for group classes in fitness clubs in Debrecen

Survey of the qualification of fitness trainers for group classes in fitness clubs in Debrecen

Bartha Éva, Pfau Christa, Szabóné Szőke Réka, Müller Anetta Éva, Bácsné Bába Éva

Fitness workouts  are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The interview included questions about trainers highest qualifications, qualifications related to trainer work and the extent to which this is monitored by their employers. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Controlling the qualifications be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

Keywords: fitness club, fitness trainer, fitness programs, consumers

JEL Kód: Z20


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/2

3. Investigation of factors affecting students ‘sports habits

Investigation of factors affecting students 'sports habits

Pfau Christa, Mészáros János

Nowadays, a health-conscious lifestyle has come to the fore, with one of their important components being leisure sports. In our research, we examined the sporting habits of Debrecen university students (n=178) and factors that may influence these habits, with an online questionnaire. We found out that 61% of respondents exercise regularly in their spare time. With the help of a four-point Likert scale, we examined how much influence the availability and quality of various sports services have on the students. The highest rating was given to having a friendly atmosphere (3.5), which is followed by good equipment and facilities (3.45). We analyzed how much they spend on their health and how willing they are to spend more on their health if they had more money. For non-sporting students, they more likely to be unsatisfied with their physical condition all the while they spend less on their health. Non-sporting students cited lack of time (3.49) as the greatest turn-off when questioned. A significant percentage of both groups (78.18% of sporting, 86.76% of non-sporting) would be willing to spend more on their health if they earned additional cash.

Keywords: sporting habits, university students, leisure sport

JEL code: I12


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/3

4. The effect of the coronavirus on football players’ value

The effect of the coronavirus on football players’ value

Bács Bence

Before the recent coronavirus pandemic the football sector could be described with stable economic growth. The individual and cummulated revenue growth of football clubs are obviously in coherence with the nuncupation of player rights’, i.e. the player transfer activity of football clubs. The consecutive economical growth had it’s effect on player transfer values, since in the last decade constantly rising transfer prices could be experienced. In spite of the fact that this phenomenon carries a danger as well through the growth of player transfer values, by and large it contributes to the growth of the sector. European club football in total reported operating profits in 2018 for the second consecutive year. The continous development had been stopped by the COVID-19 pandemic.  Matches were postponed and fans could only follow their teams via broadcasting. Restrictions had their effect not only on club revenue, but on players’ valuation as well, resulting 13-18% impairment on their market value by the analysis of the most costly transfers of the last transfer window.

Keywords: football, player rights, sporteconomics

JEL code: Z21


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/4

5. The role and opportunities of short supply chains – with a focus on the organizations of Hajdú-Bihar county

The role and opportunities of short supply chains - with a focus on the organizations of Hajdú-Bihar county

Kovács Evelin

An important basis for the development of new rural development practices is the re-creation of supply chains. SFSCs (Short Food Supply Chain) are also capable of breaking the system of long, complex industrial chains. In the case of SFSCs, producer-consumer relations are “shortened” and redefined. After exploring the literature, I came to the conclusion that short supply chains are receiving more and more attention nowadays, and more and more forms of operation are appearing in Hungary as well.

The promotion of local products has been helped by a number of programs in recent years. I have found that the international literature presents the operation of RELs in the form of a case study. The primary aim of the study was to search for international examples that can form a basis of comparison for the organizations operating in Hungary, especially in Hajdú-Bihar County. After that, I presented specific networks operating in Hajdú-Bihar county, four networks were identified. Finally, I discussed the results of a questionnaire survey between REL members. In summary, 80% of the respondents believe in the viability and economical operation of RELs. Most identified the development of information technology as an area of ​​operation to be developed. Farmers would be willing to strengthen direct sales in order to make product production economical. 88% of producers sell in local, producer markets. They are basically satisfied with the functioning of the producer market and also consider it economically satisfactory to sell on the producer market.

Keywords: short supply chain, short food supply chain, local food, local product, producer market

JEL code: Q13


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/5

6. Spatial characteristics of European Union supported projects with the objective to enhance the dissemination of renewable energy resources in in the 2007-2013 budgetary period

Spatial characteristics of European Union supported projects with the objective to enhance the dissemination of renewable energy resources in in the 2007-2013 budgetary period

Badar Zoltán, Kozma Gábor

In the recent period, the use of renewable energy sources has received increasing emphasis both in the European Union and in Hungary. Building on the successes of the recent decades, the European Union and Hungarian documents have set increasingly ambitious objectives. European Union subsidies play a very important role in the financing of investments, and in the spirit of this, the aim of the study is to present the spatial characteristics of projects supporting the use of renewable energy sources in one specific region of Hungary, in the Northern Great Plain region. As a result of the research, on the one hand, the influencing role of three factors can be detected. The effect of socio-economic development was observed at both county and district levels, and in the case of settlements the number of population and the administrative role (existence of a district center) can be mentioned. On the other hand, the study also revealed that there are significant differences between the spatial characteristics of the two operational programs supporting the use of renewable energy sources (Regional and Settlement Development Operational Program, Environmental and Energy Efficiency Operational Program).

Keywords: renewable energy resources, EU grants, spatial characteristics

JEL code: H76, N54, Q42, R58


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/6

7. The pressure of generational change on the successors in the family farms in Karcag

The pressure of generational change on the successors in the family farms in Karcag

Kovács Éva Katalin, Pető Károly

Family farms have an important role in agriculture. It is a form of farming where the family can keep the acquired competence and wealth of the farm for several generations.Therefore the issue of generational change is becoming more and more important nowadays. However, generational changing can face a number of obstacles. One of the major obstacles to farm transfer can be if the family farm does not have a successor, who could carry on the family traditions. In practice, the State and the European Union too try to encourage young farmers to continue agricultural activity, but this is not too popular. In our survey, we were looking for the answer to how much psychological pressure there is on successors to take over their family farm, and how much this pressure depends on the size of the farm and the generation of successors. We conducted the questionnaire survey with family farms in Karcag where the issue of succession is actual. The results of the study based on the responses of the farmers surveyed, show that the successors do not feel the pressure of taking over the farm, but are rather proud to be able to continue on their family traditions.Keywords: generational change, pressure, family farmers, Karcag

JEL code: Z00


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/7

8. Theoretical review of corporate communication with special attention to linguistic effects and communication noise

Theoretical review of corporate communication with special attention to linguistic effects and communication noise

Székely Beatrix

Based on literature, the aim of this review is to provide a clear vision of the general aspects of communication, the linguistic effects in communication, and noises in organizational communication and their solutions. Regarding the review of different disciplines, the basic concept of communication appears differently; communication noises must be considered in all the cases during communication. Noise includes physical phenomena, psychological factors, but it can also be interpreted as linguistic or intellectual barriers, such as those arising from the interpretation of loanwords and different wording. In Hungary, research on the effectiveness of organizational communication has examined the effect of different wording of job advertisements in a general framework, research results on the use of loanwords and different wording are found in linguistic research.

Keywords: communication, corporate communication, loanwords, wording, recruitment

JEL code: M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/8

9. Transforming leadership tasks through the example of Hajdú-Bihar county organizations

Transforming leadership tasks through the example of Hajdú-Bihar county organizations

Gál Zsuzsa, Berde Csaba, Pierog Anita

Permanent change is an axiomatic phenomenon in organization life that has its effect every day. Responding to changes is one of the conditions for the long-term survival of an organization. In our study, we looked into the question how changes affect organizations, what perceptible transformations and reactions they evoke or generate in the functioning of organizations. To answer these questions, semi-structure interviews were applied with Hajdú-Bihar county senior executives, owners. Our results showed that consistency, teamwork, and continuous feedback play a critical role in implementing change. Management tasks transform during the change, the proportions of each task shift. Based on the results, it is worth conducting further research on the role of management tasks in organizational change.

Keywords: change, management, leadership tasks, organization

JEL code: M14


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/9

10. Is the glass ceiling a self-fulfilling prophecy?! – Research of career opportunities among female workers

Is the glass ceiling a self-fulfilling prophecy?! – Research of career opportunities among female workers

Szántó Gerda

„Is the glass ceiling a self-fulfilling prophecy?! – Connection between career opportunities and competencies among female workers” research has focused on the presence of women in the labor market. The objective of the questionnaire research is to assess whether women are stuck at certain career levels due to the lack of competence and motivation. During the research, I was able to gain insight into women’s attitudes towards careers, which showed a positive picture. I assessed that they were motivated, and I also got answer to the main question, that significant percentage of the 161-person sample would like to work as a leader, and they would have the appropriate skills. However, I was also told that they are building their own barriers to the workplace, many of them are happy with their current job, but not wanting more. The presence of a glass ceiling in the workplace is important to get proper attention as women make up a significant part of the labor market.

 Keywords: women, carrer, competence, leadership, glass ceiling

Jel code: J24, J71, M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/10

11. The vision of newer generations on the farms of Hajdú-Bihar county

The vision of newer generations on the farms of Hajdú-Bihar county

Orbán Szabolcs Gergely

For the former rural society the basic pillar of economic security was the homestead, and farming there, which was then further inherited within the family. A century ago more than a million people lived on homesteads in Hungary, but today it has fallen to well under a quarter of a million. The decline in population was due on the one hand, to the emergence of modern machinery and new cultivation and breeding technologies in agriculture, which transformed farming and the people involved, and on the other, to society’s living standards and expectations out of infrastructures that meet modern needs, so the emigration of the younger generations living there began, who moved into nearby villages and towns. The aim of my research was to explore the future tendencies of the possibilities of moving from homesteads among the homestead inhabitants of Hajdú-Bihar county, taking into account the current conditions, which was based on a survey conducted in all its districts. The results of the study show that most of the newer generations growing up on homesteads no longer envision their future there, however if the homestead were more extensively constructed in terms of comfort and corresponded to a higher degree of comfort, this might guarantee that the young people would still remain in place.

Keywords: homestead, newer types of generations, youth, stay, future

JEL code: Z00


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/11

12. Qualitative study of customer and consumer behaviour towards spas and balneo cosmetics in the Central Hungarian region through own model development

Qualitative study of customer and consumer behaviour towards spas and balneo cosmetics in the Central Hungarian region through own model development

Amberg Nóra

The starting point for the presentation of the topic indicated in the title of the study is the use of spas in Central Hungary (mainly belonging to Budapest Spas cPlc.) and the purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (especially the Budapest Spas product family, which is Budapest Spas cPlc.’s balneo cosmetics family). Description of a theoretical model describing the system of relations between the influencing factors – built on the basis of literature and secondary sources. The practical significance of the topic covered through the theoretical concept is primarily the return to naturalness, in terms of the topic, to medicinal water and the purchase and use of cosmetics made from medicinal water ingredients. Following the presentation of the theoretical model, the research model concept is described, the factors of which have been supplemented with new determinants by the qualitative research results. The research model concept was developed by interpreting the results of two-phase qualitative data collection. The objectives (and outcomes) associated with the surveys were as follows. (1) With the help of online content monitoring (n = 50) the main factors of buying and consuming balneo cosmetics were identified. (2) With the help of individual research interviews (n = 20) the validity of the theoretical model was examined and the use of balneo, the main variables of the purchase and consumption of cosmetics were explored, highlighting the identification of consumer grouping directions that focus on consciously spent leisure time, health awareness and recreation. This publication focuses on the presentation of model development and key qualitative research findings.

Keywords: spas, balneo cosmetics, purchasing, consumption, recreation

JEL code: M31


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/12

13. Quantitative study of customer and consumer behaviour towards spas and balneo cosmetics, with special regard to the Central Hungarian region

Quantitative study of customer and consumer behaviour towards spas and balneo cosmetics, with special regard to the Central Hungarian region

Amberg Nóra

The starting point for the presentation of the topic indicated in the title of the study is the use of spas in Central Hungary (mainly belonging to Budapest Spas cPlc.), and the purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (especially the Budapest Spas product family, which is Budapest Spas cPlc.’s balneo cosmetics family) a description of a research model describing the relationship between factors – based on literature, secondary sources and qualitative research.

This last phase of the research concludes with the interpretation of the result of single-phase online quantitative data collection (n = 218) based on the research model concept. The methods used in the study are one-, two- (cross-tabular) and multivariate (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) methods. Univariate methods show the prominent role of each key variable. Bivariate or multivariate methods explore the relationships between the variables examined and the lists of claims in the field of spas and balneo cosmetics. The objectives (and results) related to the data collection were as follows: The advantage of spas in Budapest is that they are relatively close to each other, so their frequency of visits is one or more times a year. The spas of Pest County are the least visited, which may be due to the unknown nature of the spas here. The frequency of visits to the examined Budapest spas can be explained by their awareness, frequency and breadth of services. The most common reason for visiting regional spas is the refreshment, which is behind the variable, the reason why consumers, in their conscious free time, look for the opportunities provided by medicinal waters, by which they can recharge and relax. The need for recreation, on the other hand, does not show a difference between each age group, as all age groups need rest and recharge. Among the spa services, a distinction can be made between basic, extended and extra packages, of which the basic and extended packages are used more by women and the extra packages are mainly used by men. Consumer groups can also be formed based on the reasons for using the spas. There are consumers who are open and there are those who are not open about their attitudes towards spa services. Spas are generally used by consumers for regeneration, disease prevention and recreational reasons. Balneo cosmetics are especially bought by women, both for medical, preventive and recreational purposes, and because they consider these cosmetic products to be anti-allergenic, ie they do not fear the risk of developing allergies. In terms of openness to balneo cosmetics, there is an open and an open group for balneo cosmetics, and an open group that cannot be called open for all factors examined. The practical applicability of the research is to make medicinal waters as widely known as possible in relation to both spas and balneo cosmetics.

Keywords: use of spas (in Central Hungary), purchase and consumption of balneo cosmetics (in Central Hungary), qualitative research, model development, recreation

JEL code: M31


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/13

14. The Internal Sources of the Jews in the Source Material of MNL (Hungarian National Archives) 1760-1848

The Internal Sources of the Jews in the Source Material of MNL (Hungarian National Archives) 1760-1848

Mislovics Erzsébet

The study is focused on the collection and complex analysis of the original, yet unpublished Jewish documents in the feudal source collections of MNL, Hungarian National Archives from the second half of the 18th century until 1848.

The search for original internal sources began with a review of government records during the period under review. The collections in the Chancellery Archives, Acta Generalia (A 39) and the Council of Governor-General Archives, Departamentum Judaeorum (C 55) maintain the documents of the first and second instance bodies of the public administration in their relations with the intermediate administrative authorities. The source material in the Chancellery Archives presents mostly records of general affairs, whereas the Departamentum Judaeorum collection of the Council of Governor-General contains Jewish-related issues. In support of the presumptions, the collections are rich in Jewish-related internal, historical sources. The documents allow for a complex analysis of the time, number, geographical distribution, and content of the document collections. The sources contribute to a better understanding of the history of the Jews, their settlement, their economic, cultural, religious life, and their system of relations with Christian society. The document pages present their content to researchers in the wording of the members of contemporaneous Jewish society. Based on the research experience, it can be concluded that the vast majority of the sources come from Pest County, more closely from the town of Pest. Research on these inner sources in the collections of other counties is expedient to increase awareness of Jewish history in the modern Kingdom of Hungary. Therefore, the future goal of the research may be to review the materials of the county archives. It provides an opportunity to compare how the archival material in the national archives is complemented by archival collections from the counties. The development of a database could also be a step forward and could integrate the sources in national and county archives by indicating headings, names, locations, indexes, and short regestas. The available internal source material can refine and enrich the known history of 17-19th century Jews.

Keywords: Internal source, Jews, social history,, economic history,  cultural history

JEL code: 02 02 07


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/14

15. Long live generalissimus Stalin! – The first experience of digital storytelling in the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County Archives of the National Archives of Hungary

Long live generalissimus Stalin! – The first experience of digital storytelling in the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County Archives of the National Archives of Hungary

Mucsi László, Szabóné Maslowski Madlen

In 2020 Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County Archives of the National Archives of Hungary tried a new form of presenting. In contrast with the previous static posts, this time Institute used the opportunity of modern video making, which can satisfy the needs of today’s audience more successfully. Digital storytelling is such content that is meant to be shared, and is created by the logical connecting of auditory and visual elements. We found it important to place such original archival documents in the centre of the video that are capable of grabbing the attention both with their substance and appearance. The demonstrated documents originate from 1949. They include the texts and drawings of young students, celebrating Stalin’s 70th birthday. These documents can appeal to the interest not only by their spectacular appearance but also by their historical value. The children’s words are trustworthy proof for Stalin’s personality cult and perfectly reflect the propaganda of the era. The video was published on YouTube.

Keywords: digital storytelling, Stalin, personality cult, archives

JEL code: 02 02 07


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/2/15

1. Az influenza elleni védőoltás társadalmi hasznosságának számítása statisztikai adatok alapján

Az influenza elleni védőoltás társadalmi hasznosságának számítása statisztikai adatok alapján

Vajó Péter, Bács Zoltán

Tanulmányunkban olyan célt tűztünk magunk elé, melyre vonatkozóan sem a magyar, sem a nemzetközi szakirodalomban nem találtunk precedenst: tényadatokból kiindulva számszerűsíteni az influenza elleni védőoltás hatékonyságát, s a valós adatok alapján számított hatékonysági értékből kiindulva megállapítani a védőoltások révén be nem következett megbetegedések számát.

Tanulmányunkban a 2018/2019-es influenza szezon adatait elemeztük. Munkánk során a népesség számra, a beoltottságra és a megbetegedések számára vonatkozóan rendelkezésre álló adatokat elemeztük, vontunk le belőlük objektív következtetéseket. Problémát jelentett, hogy az eltérő adatállományokban eltérő korcsoportokra vonatkoztatva jelentek meg az alapadatok, így azok között a konszenzust meg kellett teremteni, összehasonlítható korcsoportokat kellett képezni. Végső soron három jól elkülöníthető korosztály keletkezett. A kiskorúak csoportja (0 – 18 év), a gazdaságilag aktívak (19 – 59 év) és a 60 év felettiek korcsoportja. Ez a három korosztály népességileg, beoltottság és megbetegedés szerint jól elkülöníthetővé vált.

Bemutattuk az influenza betegséget általánosságban, az influenza vírus jellemzőit, változékonyságát. Ismertettük a jellemzően érintett korosztályt, a kezelendő betegek számát, az elmúlt 5 – 10 évre vonatkozó trendeket.

A bemutatott tényadatokból, számsorokból, az abból végzett számítások eredményéből és a levont következtetésekből a szubjektivitást teljes mértékben kizárva látszik a védőoltások betegséget megelőző hatása, hatékonysága, melyet – elsőként a hazai szakirodalomban – számszerűsíteni is sikerült.


Kulcsszavak: Kvalitatív Módszerek, Finanszírozás, Egészség

JEL Kódok: C4, G0, I1


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/1


2. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on different areas of life in Hungary (work, private life, health and mental state)

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on different areas of life in Hungary (work, private life, health and mental state)

Vida Viktória, Popvics Péter András

The COVID-19 epidemic had an enormous impact on the entire world, including the Hungarian population. The situation was accompanied by numerous new restrictions, strict regulations, and their consequences had to be dealt with, which also affected the life of everyone. Therefore, it was considered that it would be worthwhile to assess the different reactions to this situation among the population, what effects the people had to face and whether there was a change in their lives. The opinions of respondents  on different areas of life was surveyed, such as private life, changes in personal relationships, introduction of changes in workplace habits, and the effects on health and mental state. Also the survey intended to reveal newly developed good and bad habits. The survey method was a questionnaire-based survey, which was delivered to the respondents online (n=362). The results obtained from the sample were evaluated, subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and then crosstabs were performed based on background variables (gender, age, educational attainment, occupation, and income) to present correlations. The results of the sample are not representative, but they properly represent and summarize the situation.

Keywords: COVID-19, impact of work, health, mood, relationships, habits, home office

JEL code: I12


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/2

3. “Stay Home” – Moving to Home Office in the Northern Great Plain Region

“Stay Home” - Moving to Home Office in the Northern Great Plain Region

Filep Roland, Ujhelyi Mária

The changes resulting from the covid epidemic have led to an unprecedented spread of the Home Office. In our study, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of working away from work, we chose an organization’s Northern Great Plain Region where face-to-face negotiations are essential, so they were rarely used before the emergency, but were switched en masse due to changed circumstances. We sought to answer which of the literature factors significantly impacted employee satisfaction related to teleworking and the need to maintain it after an epidemic. Based on the regression analysis results, we found that employee satisfaction with a greater desire to switch to telecommuting, proficiency in solutions replacing personal communication channels, and perceived improvement in work-life balance has a positive, uncertainty and stress associated with implementation. Workers would be happy to work in this form in the future if they desire to switch to teleworking became more pronounced at the time of introduction. However, the fear of switching, higher age and lack of managerial feedback would lead them back to the workplace. As a suggestion, we stated that managerial support is vital throughout the process, which should be reflected in employees’ involvement in the decision-making process, the appropriate replacement of the personal communication channel, and more frequent feedback. In improving work-life balance, a leader can be on the side of time management to help his followers by prioritizing tasks. In the Home Office experience process, these measures can help employees experience the benefits of telecommuting more

Keywords: home office, covid, change management, leadership

Jel codes: J24, L16, M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/3

4. Employment during the Coronavirus crisis, experiences from the Northern Great Plain Region

Employment during the Coronavirus crisis, experiences from the Northern Great Plain Region

Barizsné Hadházi Edit, Ujhelyi Mária, Filep Roland,

The impact of the pandemic crisis was particularly significant on the labour market. In our study, we sought the answer to what percentage of workers were brought into precarious conditions by the epidemic. Another question was in which industries were the organizations able to use the Home Office option and their practical experience. Based on secondary data, different economic sectors have been affected to different degrees by the viral situation, with low, medium and high levels separated by the literature according to the impact on emissions. Compared to the global average (50%), Hungary has a higher proportion of employees (60%) in the “high” or “medium high” sectors. According to German regional results, education, finance and telecommunications within the service are the areas where teleworking is most applicable to maintain continuous operation and employment. As part of primary research, we interviewed the head of an organization operating in a low-, medium- and high-impact sector in the Northern Great Plain Region. There was no significant change in the “low” category, in the case of “medium” the acquisition activity was pushed into the background, in the case of “high” there was a downsizing. Based on this, it can be said that the Pandemic catalyzed the digitization processes, the Home Office, which was introduced or expanded by force, presumably had a developmental effect on organizations, which effect cannot be left without a trace after the virus situation. The organization’s experience can be utilized if it returns to the “normal” wheelbase by eliminating the disadvantages and strengthening the advantages.

Keywords: covid, employment, home office, economic sectors, regions

JEL codes: J24, L16



5. Munkahelyi jólét – egészségfejlesztés és stressz típusai a Dél-Dunántúlon

Munkahelyi jólét - egészségfejlesztés és stressz típusai a Dél-Dunántúlon

Berke Szilárd, Schmidt Marcell, Kőműves Zsolt

A szervezetek hatékonyságát döntően befolyásolja az alkalmazottak elégedettsége és jólléte. Ebben a tanulmányban megvizsgáltuk, hogy a munkahelyi motivációs eszközök hogyan befolyásolják az alkalmazottak jólétét és hatékonyságát, mi okozza a stresszt, és milyen megoldásokkal lehet javítani a munkahelyi légkört, és milyen elemek vannak jelen az egészségfejlesztésben. Az online kérdőívre 157 értékelhető válasz érkezett. A kérdőívet online, a Google Űrlapok rendszer segítségével tettük közzé. A kérdőívre adott válaszok alapján megállapítható, hogy a válaszadók többsége nem ismeri az egészségfejlesztés fogalmát. A jóllét érzését növelik a megemelt bérek, a megbecsülés és az extra pénzjutalmak. Ha kellemesebb, nyugodtabb, kiegyensúlyozottabb a munkahelyi légkör, ez egyértelműen elégedettséghez vezet – nyilatkozták. A stressz nagy részét a túlterhelés, az ügyfélgondozás és a vezetővel való kapcsolat (rossz) minősége okozza. A válaszadók 55 %-a saját bevallása alapján nem szeret a jelenlegi munkahelyén dolgozni.

Kulcsszavak: wellbeing, stressz, emberi erőforrás menedzsment

Jel kódok: M14, M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/5

6. Munkaerő megtartás a hazai kkv szektorban Somogy megyében

Munkaerő megtartás a hazai kkv szektorban Somogy megyében

Kőműves Zsolt, Berke Szilárd

Egyre több szervezet küzd a szakképzett munkaerő-hiányának problémájával, így a megtartás-menedzsment a HR szakma egyik kulcsterületévé vált az elmúlt néhány évben. A témával kapcsolatos felmérések döntően a dolgozók szemszögéből közelítik meg a kérdést, lényegesnek tartottuk ezért feltárni, hogy a vállalatvezetők hogyan vélekednek az alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartást célzó intézkedések eredményességéről. Tanulmányunk egy 2020-ban készült kutatás néhány eredményét mutatja be. Az általunk megkérdezett vállalatvezetők a rugalmas foglalkoztatási formákat (pl. rugalmas munkaidő) tartják leginkább alkalmasnak a munkaerő-megtartására, de fontos szerepet tulajdonítanak a csoportkohézió kialakításának (pl. tréningek szervezése), illetve a dolgozók béremelésbe való bevonásának is. A tervezett eszközök közül kiemelkedik a hosszú távú ösztönzési program, munkavállalói elégedettség és elköteleződés felmérése, valamint a teljesítményértékelési rendszer kidolgozása és annak bevezetése. Legkevésbé alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartó programelem az életbiztosítás és a nyugdíjbiztosítás.

Kulcsszavak: HR trendek, munkaerőmegtartás, motiváció, KKV szektor

Jel kód: M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/6

7. Issues of self-management and improving organizational effectiveness among managers

Issues of self-management and improving organizational effectiveness among managers

Csapai Erzsébet Gyopár

It is very difficult to measure the leadership excellence. Partly because the indicators of the organizational excellence are measuring mainly the effectiveness and there are not focusing on the “managerial value”. Scientist made a lot of effort in the last decades to measure the “managerial value”, trying to approach from many sides the managerial success. In our research we wanted to review the international practice, and, in the other hand we tried to conduct a situation survey among Hungarian leaders with the aim of exploring the value-creation processes and the managerial thinking and practice which are behind them. This article focuses on self-management solutions and operational management processes to improve the effectiveness of organizational processes. One of the goals of the survey was to discover and present the Hungarian management mindset, the self-management working methods and time-management behavior in the SME sector, all in the context of effectiveness and to enrich with this new information the scientific and market knowledge in the field. 148 managers were included in the study, partly due to the difficult availability, the low willingness to answer, and partly due to the confidential nature of the questions and the large size of the questionnaire.

According to the answers we can see, that among the interviewed leaders are common the use of time-management applications, task-lists (with task prioritization) and accordingly, the next day’s activities are planned in the evenings. Correlated with the supervision of corporate processes, quality management systems, decision making systems and connection with employees (eg: site visits and daily meetings) receive a special attention.

In the basic research we developed 3 clusters: “uncertain empathic”, “experienced strategist” and “ambitious purposeful”. Among them the members of the last cluster performed excellently based on their daily work practices and daily leadership habits. 86.36% of the organizations they lead are profitable and growing at a balanced rate (5% growth rate per year). If we look for the human factors behind the outstanding organizational effectiveness, the components of excellence, presumably this cluster offers solutions.

Keywords: self-management, leadership, organizational effectiveness, managerial effectiveness

Jel codes: M12, M14, M54


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/7

8. Sport, nonprofit and civil organisations: The investigation of employment and volunteering in Hungary and in Romania

Sport, nonprofit and civil organisations: The investigation of employment and volunteering in Hungary and in Romania

Dajnoki Krisztina, Szabados György Norbert, Bács Zoltán, Bácsné Bába Éva , Kőmíves Péter Miklós

The civil organisations started to appear more often around the local regime changes in Hungary and Romania. Most of these civil organisations aimed to perform different tasks in culture, sports or other public purposes. At the same period in the two named countries, Hungary and Romania, a significant change began in employment. Before the regime changes in the two countries, the most important actor on the employer’s side was the state itself. However, after 1989, private companies started to employ more employees and play a greater role in the labour market. At the same time, several civil organisations appeared on the local labour markets that could employ people. However, some of these organisations employed a few volunteer employees who covered most of the activities related to the organisational aims of these organisations. Volunteerism became more popular in Hungary and Romania as well. Volunteering is widespread in sport-focused civil organisations in connection with organising smaller or major sporting events. The study aims to explore the employment characteristics of the sectors concerned in the context of volunteering, particularly the study of non-profit and non-governmental organisations active in the field of sport and measurable volunteering in the field of sport. Based on the hypothesis test results, it can be concluded that due to the different political past, there was indeed some delay in developing the civil sphere in Romania. In the case of both Hungary and Romania, the role of voluntary work is significant. In sports, the role of volunteers has become unavoidable in connection with the operation of various sports associations and sports clubs and the organisation of large sports events.

Keywords: civil organisation, employment, volunteerism, Hungary, Romania

JEL codes: I31, J01, J21, L83, Z22


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/8

9. Examination of the organizational structure and the management functions of state-accredited football academies

Examination of the organizational structure and the management functions of state-accredited football academies

Szalánczi Zoltán

My research was aimed to investigate the organizational structure and the management functions of the state-accredited football academies in Hungary. The relenvance of this topic is given by the high amount of money flowing in to this sector, and the changes in the onganizational background. With the development of football, the clubs are working yet as companies, and this organistional frame requires a well planned structure. In my research I analized the operation of these organisations as companies, and I tried to answer the suggested questions about structure and leadership, with a comparative analysis of the academies highlighted by the national federation. I revealed what are the organizational problems faced by the academies, and which directions they have to follow to develop their companies, to ensure the safe, and long term operation. I choosed 3 from the 10 state-accredited academies to analyse their structure. The chosen clubs were the Várda Sport Egyesület, the Vasas Kubala Akadémia, and the Győri ETO FC youth base. It was important for me to represent an academy from each part of Hungary, to have the possibility to see some regional specialities. Through my study I investigated the responsibilities of the academy directors to see which were the key areas they had to enchance in their companies, and to define the differences in each organization. It was also my goal to reveal these differences have benefists or disadvantages for the operation. My main goal was to locate critical success factors needed for the modern, and proper operation. The research revealed that the three academies examined follow the traditional linear, functional organizational structure, but there are also differences in the definition of jobs and in the operation of the company. These differences are largely to be found in the local identity and the still ongoing development of the organizational background.

Keywords: sport management, youth academy, football, organizational structure

JEL code: Z2


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/21/1/9

10. Analysis of the development of the Hungarian Football League through the player market

Analysis of the development of the Hungarian Football League through the player market

Balogh Renátó, Bácsné Bába Éva

Hungarian football has developed significantly since 2010, based on the state of the infrastructure or the number of footballers. As a result of the success of sports in recent years, we have been asked whether this positive change has also happened in the case of the football league. Document analysis was applied in the research, thus statistics from transfermarkt site were collected and processed. Based on this, we compared the OTP Bank League with the Czech Fortuna League. Based on the research results the Hungarian football league has gone a significant change in recent years, but it is still not among the top 30 European leagues. We can see negative trends, whether we look at the rate of foreign players or the transfer balance in recent seasons. In conclusion, we cannot talk about its general development in the case of the Hungarian football league, the club’s success is mainly due to the higher quality and market value of foreign players.

Keywords: professional football, player market, human resource management

JEL codes: Z20, Z22


DOI: 10.30176/RSZ/21/1/10