Disposal of public records is an ordinary element of document management, which is also practiced nowadays by various organizations. The arrangement of disposal depends on the own records schedules of the offices, authorities and institutions and the County Archives can review this process. This system was formed for the first time in the Hungarian history in the 1950s, when the government attempted to regulate the integrated order of disposal of public records. However the regulations were not detailed, prudent and therefore appropriate enough, so the officials could hardly distinguish the „long-term value records” and the worthless documents. Furthermore there were local cadres, who did not even know these regulations. At the same time, after the Second World War there was a huge selection of records supported by the government, because of the lack of paper. The main standing-point has become the quantity, independently of the quality of the wasted historical papers. Political aspects also appeared during the process. For example, a newsreel from 1953 promoted the disposal as it was a good opportunity to destroy the „dusty corpus delictis of the bygone world’s bureaucrats” meaning the documents originated before 1945. For these reasons a lot of valuable documents were transported to the Papermill of Szolnok as recyclable raw material. Archivist Antal Szedő wrote several reports on the large amount of important scripts he found there. For example in 1950 Szedő found 2000 kilograms of valuable documents originated from Debrecen from the 18th and 19th century. There were also cases in the County of Szolnok, where councils made irresponsible decisions during the selection. Once archivists found old and estimable documents (including protocols from the 19th century) of Jászalsószentgyörgy, Kenderes and Besenyszög in the By-product and Waste Utilization Company of Szolnok. Unfortunately not all records could be rescued, so probably a lot of relevant ones were destructed in 1950s.
Keywords:disposal of public records, archives
JEL Kód: 02 02 07
For decades, there has been an open debate among historians about whether there was democracy in our country in 1945, and if so, what those few transition years were like, and what caused the failure of democracy. The study, – instead of the democratic state of the electoral system, the rule of law, respect for freedoms, self-government and civil society organization, – attempts to highlight the presence or absence of democratic traditions, which is generally less attended to, but undoubtedly was also part of the failure of the democratic experiment in 1945.
Perhaps surprising, but the political and moral traditions of a society determine the chances for the development and survival of a democracy. In a corrupt, morally inferior society, it is more difficult to establish and operate democracy. Thus, democracy is guaranteed not only by the appearance of institutions and elections, but also by the thinking of the people living in it and by the norms that determine their behavior.
The study illustrates the peculiarity of Hungary with examples mostly from Szolnok that in the 20th century the interchanging systems were struggling with a serious deficit of democracy, and therefore no democratic traditions could be formed in the society, and in 1945 they could not go back to such antecedents. Therefore, after 1945, Hungarian society appears as corrupt as it did before 1945. Corruption has affected not only politicians but also those at lower levels of society and has engulfed society as a whole. Thus, in order to consolidate democracy, it will not be enough in the future to replace politicians and reform institutions, but the society as a whole must change too, especially in its way of thinking and behavior.
Keywords: Corruption, democracy, history of society, history of politics, history of mentality
A significant part of literatures on the present and future of industry and labor market states that in our days the fourth industrial revolution is taking place. In our study, we undertake to explore the impact of digital transformation on education and the labor market, and to examine the changes that have taken place in recent decades in the highest school qualifications of Hungarian people. Our goal is to highlight the connection between the acquired skills and industry 4.0. We have come to the conclusion that, as a result of digital development at extreme speed, the social and economic environment has undergone significant changes. The education of the Hungarian population has been steadily increasing in recent decades, with a drastic reduction in the proportion of uneducated people, while at the same time increasing the proportion of graduates of secondary and tertiary education. This is a very positive trend, because in an accelerated world, future workers need to learn new skills in order to succeed in the labor market. As a result of rapid technological progress, a number of problems that have not been solved in the education system will have to be solved. And in order to benefit the greatest advantage from the fourth industrial revolution that is taking place, industry, education and the labor market need a more coordinated functioning than ever before.
Keywords: fourth industrial revolution, digital transformation, labor market, education, highest qualification
JEL: O33, M15, J24, I21
Our research would like to draw attention to some specific aspects of demographic processes and their effects in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. Among the demographic processes, we highlighted the study of the population by age groups, internal migration and changes in the birth rate. From among the impact mechanisms of demographic processes, we dealt in detail with the assessment of the state of education. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in addition to the analysis of the qualitative changes that have taken place in the last twenty years, we considered it important to examine the connections between education, employment and the labour market, as well as the connections between education and urbanization. We found that among the phenomena subject to traditional demography, the largest change in domestic migration has occurred in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county since 2001. In the last twenty years, the migration loss has almost quadrupled, which is the highest among the domestic counties. In addition, there was a significant change in the proportions of the population by age groups. Since 2001, in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, the proportion of the 0-14 age group in the population has decreased one and a half times faster than the proportion of the oldest age group. These unfavourable processes have a significant negative effect – which are not favourable anyway – on the educational processes of the studied area.
Keywords: demography, education, loss of migration, birth rate
JEL : J19
The situation of those living on the homesteads has always been quite deprived, as they have to deal with a lot of obstacles every day, which is further aggravated by the fact that their social relations are typically low, which in many cases decreases with age as a result, social isolation with special characteristics may arise. The primary goal of my study was to assess the social isolation of the homestead inhabitants in Hajdú-Bihar County, and secondly, I sought the answer to what socio-demographic factors affect this objective state. The research was based on a survey conducted in all districts of the county, from the aggregated data of which it is possible to generalize to the degree of isolation of the homesteads. The results of the study show that every fifth homestead inhabitant of the study population can be considered socially isolated at some level.
Keywords: homestead, life on the homestead, social isolation, old, homestead janitors
Recognizing the importance of proper health, people have become increasingly responsible and aware of their health in recent decades. Maintaining health is a rewarding activity for both the employee and the employer in the long run. Investing in the health of employees is at the same time an investment in the successful operation of a company, as for most companies, the employees themselves are the key factors that determine a company’s profitability. Companies can gain a great deal by paying attention to the health of their employees, not only will it make it easier to attract and retain new workforce, but it will also increase employee efficiency. In order to preserve and improve the health of their employees, their health awareness needs to be developed, and employers can do a lot to achieve this process. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. There are countless opportunities for employers to promote health awareness, healthy eating and regular exercise among their employees. Exploiting the potential of corporate health promotion is extremely important and necessary, as it is a long-term profitable investment for both the individual and the company, so its widespread use would be warranted.
Keywords: health, health promotion, health awareness, company, employee
JEL Kód: I12, I15
Nowadays, change has become a commonplace. Organizations are also undergoing changes that shall meet to survive in the long term. Organizational culture is one of the important factors that can contribute to a successful and timely response. However, in many cases, due to external environmental effects change also the organizational culture. In such cases it is necessary to act in a planned and conscious manner. Changing culture is a complex, complicated task. There are many approaches that list the factors of successful cultural change. These define the key of success along different ways, but some similarities can be observed. The leader has a most important role in such a situation. In this paper I introduce the basic relationships, the background and the evolution of the change, organizational culture and cultural change.
Keywords: culture, change, organizational culture, cultural change, leader
Nowadays, organizations place increasing emphasis on motivating employees, as the effectiveness of an organization is greatly influenced by the motivation level of the employees, knowing that a motivated employee can perform better and remain loyal to the organization.
In order to motivate employees effectively, it is essential that managers are aware of the various incentives available. In this study, I focus primarily on intrinsic motivation, as it is increasingly proven that extrinsic motivation tools alone are not enough to achieve the desired level of motivation for employees. My overall goal is to assess the motivational characteristics of students in my environment, including the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
In the first part of the article, I present the literature on intrinsic motivation, which presents the topic in a more and more practical way, adapting to the needs of the present age. In the following, I present my research using a shortened version of the Aspiration Index. A total of 470 people from the Faculty of Economics and Business and the Faculty of Informatics of the University of Debrecen took part in my quantitative research. For the evaluation of the results I used both descriptive and mathematical statistical methods.
After analysing the answers, I concluded that intrinsic motivation has a greater impact on students than extrinsic motivation, but money is still an essential motivational tool. I thought there was a difference in the answers of men and women and students of different programs, which led me to the conclusion that the generation should not be treated according to a scheme, it is worth developing the methods and techniques of motivation considering the individual characteristics. In conclusion, I try to formulate suggestions for managers based on the conclusions drawn from the research results. Thereby I hope that the Z generation entering the labour market in the future will be motivated more effectively.
JEL Codes: I23, I29, M12, M52
The issue of the sustainability of health care is increasingly present in public finance debates. The concerns of nations are rising health costs, an aging population, and increasing consumption of health services. The health status of the population is not only an important factor for economic growth, but also has a direct and indirect impact on tax revenues and labor market participation. The main objective of my research was to explore the impact of health expenditure on the labor market. In my study, I’ve focused on the potential labor market effects of physical activity Physival activity plays a significant role in health promotion. Physical activity improves individual’s physical abilities, including increase productivity, endurance and more effective teamwork. These factors are not only increase labor productivity, but also positively influence labor market participants and invidual employee return. I’ve been used secondary data collection during my research. The used applied method was the literature analysis. which based on domestic and international sources. The research was based on results of primary and secondary researches has carried out, in the member states of the European Union. Based on the litriture sources, I’ve found that, health can have a significant impact on labor productivity and labor supply. Health promotion contributes significantly to the success of the labor market. Physical activity, be it sport or recreation, positively influences the health of the individual’s, which is one of the key factors in returning to the labor market
Keywords: health expenditure, health promotion, physical activity, labor market
JEL: I15, J24
Adequate nutrient and fluid intake is the most important thing for the developing body, and for most young people and children, the time spent in kindergarten or school plays a decisive role, as they need to inject adequate amounts of fluid into their body during their daily lives. In our research we examined the age group of 3-14 years in the institutions of kindergartens and primary schools of Debrecen. The survey was conducted in the form of an online questionnaire, the results were evaluated with the help of the SPSS statistical program and MS Office Excel. According to our results, 69.7% of children do not consume the appropriate amount of fluid in their daily lives, which is essential for their development and attention. In the case of schoolchildren, inadequate fluid intake is common, and in order to remedy this, it would be advisable to allow institutions to consume fluid during school hours, or to encourage them by placing water machines. Based on the results, we made further recommendations.
Keywords: fluid intake, fluid consumption, water requirement, adequate intake
The health and health awareness are getting more and more important nowadays. By the way, there are many health trends, what could be exercise or eating habits. This is one of the more important areas, because numerous studies have confirmed that the obesity, the overweight or even musculoskeletal and chronic diseases are becoming more common in the population. There are several components of health awareness. In my research among the components I analysed the healthy, moderate eating and the consumption of nutritional supplements and vitamins. The aim of my research is to analyse the eating habits of students at the University of Debrecen. I did primary and secondary data collection during my research. The primary research will be implemented in several steps in survey. In my paper I present the results of exploratory research. Based on the first results, it can be concluded that the most students do sports and take vitamin supplements to preserve their health. Food groups were used to assess their eating habits. More than 50% of the respondents consume meat, cereals and dairy products per day. However, most students only consume vegetables or fruits several times a week, which does not meet the latest recommendations.
Keywords: health, the university students, eating habits, vitamin supplements
JEL Kód: I12