1. System Changes and Their Effects on the Society in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Country in the last one and a half centuries (part 1)

System Changes and Their Effects on the Society in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Country in the last one and a half centuries (part 1)

Láczay Magdolna

Starting from the mid-19th century numerous changes can be classified as systemic changes or shifts. The change of the landscape has shaped the ways lands were tilled and also caused changes in the economical structures. Then the Treaty of Trianon triggered ethnical, political, administrative and cultural changes with the new borders. The key issues of the most recent system change in 1989 the mobility of the society (and what threatens it) the survival of local traditions (and whether they are still followed) and the effects of being a border region of Hungary and the EU.

The peripherical situation of the region threatens with lagging. This is threat is strengthened by the regions ethnical and social situation worsened by the decline of the educational system. Self-government is also severely damaged by the loss of local control over public bodies.

Paradoxically enough, despite all system changes the life of local people improved only moderately and the region is still among the nation’s most vulnerable ones.

Keywords: system change, the treaty of Trianon, social mobility, borderlessness, peripheral situation

JEL kód: R58

2. Students from Cumania Maior in the Reformed College of Debrecen from 1588 to 1850

Students from Cumania Maior in the Reformed College of Debrecen from 1588 to 1850

Éliás János

This paper’s aim is to demonstrate the presence of students from Cumania Maior in the Reformed College of Debrecen from 1588 to 1850. The five towns of this region are the following: Karcag, Kisújszállás, Kunmadaras, Kunhegyes and Túrkeve. The reason why this aspect must be researched is the geographical proximity and the influence of Debrecen, because the College controlled the mentioned towns’ education; moreover, the leaders of Cumania Maior are educated in the College, too. The list of these Cumanian students is not elaborated before, so further research is necessary and worthy. The paper introduces the presence of Cumania Maior in the education system, centered in Debrecen, and the students’ frequency, further lives and works of them. The research is based on Series Studiorum in schola Debrecina Helveticae Confessionis Addictorum and the database of János Bakóczi. The database, which was created from the former two, is completed with the individual towns’ Reformed Church records. There are 369 students whose data was put into a 17-column table, and this table was the base of the diagrams. After deducting conclusions, it is considered that the students of Cumania Maior were an essential part of this education-system which is shown in the students’ further lives.

Key words: Cumania Maior, students, Reformed College of Debrecen, Pre-Modern Age, reformed education history

Jel cod: B40



3. Introducing the social situation of Hajdú-Bihar County in numbers

Introducing the social situation of Hajdú-Bihar County in numbers

Vida Viktória - Szűcs István

The aim of our study is to provide an overview of the social situation in Hajdú-Bihar County. Hajdú-Bihar County, the economic, educational, scientific and cultural center of the Northern Great Plain region. Its conditions are favorable for fulfilling its role, and it’s economic, educational, commercial, and cultural and health relations are significant beyond the national borders. In connection with Hajdú-Bihar County, it is important to mention the utilization of its logistics role and the role of the regional knowledge base. Debrecen city is the center of Hajdú-Bihar County, this is the second largest city in Hungary in terms of population. For decades Debrecen has been an outstanding role of Hajdú-Bihar County, and the city has a socio-economic impact on the whole region as a regional center. Among the above-mentioned impacts, this study focuses on the social impacts of Hajdú-Bihar County and the calculations based on local and national statistics to support and analyze this impact. The social impacts were examined primarily from a demographic point of view (population, gender, age and composition by educational level, qualifications, employment, income conditions) compared to previous years and national data.

Keywords: Hajdú-Bihar County, society, population, employment, income situation,

JEL code: R23


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/1/3

4. New standards in public administration? From the electronic communication to the electronic public administration

New standards in public administration? From the electronic communication to the electronic public administration

Szalóki István

The aim of my PHD research is to give a comprehensive picture of about the Hungarian electronic public administration’s legal regulation and its solutions by “exploring” the international legal regulation in the century of 21. I would like to pay particular attention to the changes generated by eGovernment, such as for example: the changes and development  in the persons’ role, rights and obligations. The question arises that when we speak of electronic procedure, we only emphasize one type of communication, a procedural feature, or a separate type of procedure. In the context of this essay, I would like to introduce my hypotheses and research aspects that have been discovered at the beginning of my research, and the more important concepts of the electronic public administration, which significantly determine the course and directions of my research progress. In this research first of all, I prepare my hipotesis, draft my researching aspects, furthermore at the hungarian law environment I analyse the electronic public administration’s concepts, such as basic principles, the electronic public administration’s persons and technical concepts.

Keywords: electronic public administration, Eüsztv., e-administration, SZEÜSZ, public administration procedure

JEL Codes: H83, K19, K23


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/4

5. The Beginnings of the Hungarian Disciplinary Liability of Public Service in the Dualism

The Beginnings of the Hungarian Disciplinary Liability of Public Service in the Dualism

Sallai Balázs

The subject of this paper focuses on the hungarian regulation of the  disciplinary law of the civil service in Dualism, in particular how the dogmatic elements of this legal institution evolved, developed and expanded in the 19th century. It is also important to know that this process because the disciplinary procedure we know today – and especially its many aspects of warranty – came into being at this time, but not without any professional debate. The research focuses on the administrative area of Debrecen and the enforcement and application of disciplinary law describing the disciplinary procedure of 23rd Act of 1886 through a case. (This act regulated the disiplinary procedure between 1886 and 1929). In addition to what has already been described, the ’rudimentary’ definitions of the public service relationship is also presented as a mentioned placement of the liability system of the civil service, and containing public service disciplinary liability. Moreover this paper present the disiplinary system’ s essence based on the 42nd Act of 1870 and 7th Act of 1876.

Keywords: Dualism, legal history, administrative law, liability system of civil service, disciplinary proceedings

JEL: K39


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/5

6. The awareness and recognition of the tourism brand “Heart of the Hungarian Great Plain” and its attractions

The awareness and recognition of the tourism brand "Heart of the Hungarian Great Plain" and its attractions

Kóródi Márta- Mondok Anita- Szabó Attila

The objective of developing a geographical area is, first and foremost, the effective operation, the provision of an appropriate place to live and the well-being of its inhabitants, through the creation of appropriate economic, cultural, technological and ecological conditions. According to Ritchie-Crouch (2003), a tourism destination is competitive, if it has the capability for increasing tourism revenues, attracting tourists continuously, providing visitors with memorable experiences that meet their expectations, and furthermore, for profit generation. At the same time, however, the well-being of the local population must be maintained or increased by the preservation of resources for the future generations (i.e. keeping principles of sustainable development).

The dynamic growth in tourism demand is also leading to increased competition between destinations. Intense competition also poses a challenge for the tourism marketing organization in the target area in terms of image building, product development and communication. However, the successful development of tourism can only be achieved through a well-functioning, well-cooperating system. Cooperation is needed both at regional and tourism product level.

Although the slogan of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County as a tourism brand, the “Heart of the Great Plain” meets all the requirements for mottos, the recognition by travellers must be validated with market survey. A large sample (n = 1037) survey was conducted among domestic tourists visiting the destination in summer 2019. 71.6% of the respondents identify the county well by the brand “Heart of the Great Plain”, and the proportion of bad answers was trifling.

In addition to the recognition of the tourism brand, the research also covered the assessment of the county’s various tourism attractions. Twenty-nine tourism attractions were evaluated by the respondents as to whether they were visited or known. Based on the survey results, the well-known supply elements are Lake Tisza, Abádszalók, Jászberény Zoo and Botanical Garden, Cserkeszőlő, the spa resort, Tiszavirág Festival and RepTár, Interactive Aviation Museum in Szolnok. Although the awareness of county tourism attractions is considered favourable, twelve attractions had not been visited by 10% of non-county respondents until the date of surveying, and at least one quarter of respondents in each attraction were negative for a possible future visit.

The conclusions of the research point out that by exploiting and developing the existing attractions in the destination, tourism innovation is needed to provide complex experience packages to reach a wide range of tourist segments. This can lead to a significant increase in the number of visitors.

Keywords: tourism destination, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County, brand

JEL: Z32 Tourism and Development


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/6

7. The situation of pálinka in Hungary. Problems and opportunities

The situation of pálinka in Hungary. Problems and opportunities

Harcsa Imre Milán

Distillation has centuries-old traditions in Hungary. A brief international outlook will also present the private distillation practices of the surrounding countries. Pálinka is a Hungaricum product produced by exclusively in commercial distilleries. In our country it is possible to make in subcontractdistilleries or at home, however, the product made in this way can only be called distillate and cannot be marketed. Over the last ten years, the legal framework governing the production of pálinka has changed very often, affecting the operators in the sector in different ways. Statistical information on each type of distilling will be presented, with special emphasis on the tax exemption period. Using known data from subcontract distilling, it was found that a HUF 52.1 billion deficit arose from the abolition of excise duty. The 0% excise tax resulted in a boom in subcontract distillation, with a neutral, partly negative effect on commercial distilling. The number of home distillers started to grow extraordinarily, and after the tax was restored, about 50,000 to 70,000 people disappeared from the ranks of subcontractors. Based on secondary sources, I have identified problems in the sector that need to be resolved. Furthermore, I outline the opportunities that are available but are not being used enough.

Keywords: pálinka, subcontract distilling, home distilling, commercial distilling, excise tax

JEL: L66


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/7

8. The sharing economy in EU-28 and its popularity in Hungary and Romania

The sharing economy in EU-28 and its popularity in Hungary and Romania

Kovács Tünde Zita- Nábrádi András

The emergence of sharing economy into the tertiary sector has changed the balance of power and redefining the way of achieving it. The purpose of the study aims at introducing the sharing economy, one of the most popular economic mechanisms at present, with special regard to its nomenclature and definitions. The spreading of trading platforms in services sector has created a wide variety of virtual marketplaces, where consumers and suppliers contact each other directly according to their interests. It focuses on the economic markets of the Hungarian and Romanian sharing economy to obtain a clear picture of its growing range and forms. The paper includes both primary and secondary research, literary sources and the open-access database of the European Commission, which is analysed by the SPSS 24 software. Sharing economies have been studied from both consumer and service provider perspectives, surveyed the proportion of users and suppliers, the advantages and disadvantages, the reasons for not using services offered as such, and the motives behind the participation of suppliers on sharing economy platforms was carried out in Hungary and Romania and the EU-28 members. As far as we know, the analysis of this field has not been carried out.

Keywords: sharing economy, collaborative consumption, spreading of sharing economy, SPSS analysis

JEL: D16, M13


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/8

9. Recommendations for actualization of land valuation legal frameworks and directives

Recommendations for actualization of land valuation legal frameworks and directives

Buzás Ferenc- Cehla Béla- Kiss Sándor- Mező István- Tóth Csaba

The estimated market value of domestic land in terms of scale reach some thousand billions HUF, but the estimation of the real natural and economical value need a sophisticated methodological approach. The official methodology laid on legal basis (see decree 54/1997 Min. of Agriculture) was shaped for collateral valuation fulfilled to requirements of mortgage institutes. In the years since, at the socio-economical level many things have changed, which therefore made it necessary for re-thinking, accurate or change of the methods comprised in the mentioned decree. Considering the observations of the last two decades, accordingly with international guidelines and domestic legislation, the authors try to draw up recommendations for updating land valuation rules and methods both for legislators and real appraisal professionals.

Keywords: land valuation, land price, directives, valuation principles

JEL: K25


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/20/1/9