Tanulmányunkban olyan célt tűztünk magunk elé, melyre vonatkozóan sem a magyar, sem a nemzetközi szakirodalomban nem találtunk precedenst: tényadatokból kiindulva számszerűsíteni az influenza elleni védőoltás hatékonyságát, s a valós adatok alapján számított hatékonysági értékből kiindulva megállapítani a védőoltások révén be nem következett megbetegedések számát.
Tanulmányunkban a 2018/2019-es influenza szezon adatait elemeztük. Munkánk során a népesség számra, a beoltottságra és a megbetegedések számára vonatkozóan rendelkezésre álló adatokat elemeztük, vontunk le belőlük objektív következtetéseket. Problémát jelentett, hogy az eltérő adatállományokban eltérő korcsoportokra vonatkoztatva jelentek meg az alapadatok, így azok között a konszenzust meg kellett teremteni, összehasonlítható korcsoportokat kellett képezni. Végső soron három jól elkülöníthető korosztály keletkezett. A kiskorúak csoportja (0 – 18 év), a gazdaságilag aktívak (19 – 59 év) és a 60 év felettiek korcsoportja. Ez a három korosztály népességileg, beoltottság és megbetegedés szerint jól elkülöníthetővé vált.
Bemutattuk az influenza betegséget általánosságban, az influenza vírus jellemzőit, változékonyságát. Ismertettük a jellemzően érintett korosztályt, a kezelendő betegek számát, az elmúlt 5 – 10 évre vonatkozó trendeket.
A bemutatott tényadatokból, számsorokból, az abból végzett számítások eredményéből és a levont következtetésekből a szubjektivitást teljes mértékben kizárva látszik a védőoltások betegséget megelőző hatása, hatékonysága, melyet – elsőként a hazai szakirodalomban – számszerűsíteni is sikerült.
Kulcsszavak: Kvalitatív Módszerek, Finanszírozás, Egészség
JEL Kódok: C4, G0, I1
The COVID-19 epidemic had an enormous impact on the entire world, including the Hungarian population. The situation was accompanied by numerous new restrictions, strict regulations, and their consequences had to be dealt with, which also affected the life of everyone. Therefore, it was considered that it would be worthwhile to assess the different reactions to this situation among the population, what effects the people had to face and whether there was a change in their lives. The opinions of respondents on different areas of life was surveyed, such as private life, changes in personal relationships, introduction of changes in workplace habits, and the effects on health and mental state. Also the survey intended to reveal newly developed good and bad habits. The survey method was a questionnaire-based survey, which was delivered to the respondents online (n=362). The results obtained from the sample were evaluated, subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and then crosstabs were performed based on background variables (gender, age, educational attainment, occupation, and income) to present correlations. The results of the sample are not representative, but they properly represent and summarize the situation.
Keywords: COVID-19, impact of work, health, mood, relationships, habits, home office
JEL code: I12
The changes resulting from the covid epidemic have led to an unprecedented spread of the Home Office. In our study, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of working away from work, we chose an organization’s Northern Great Plain Region where face-to-face negotiations are essential, so they were rarely used before the emergency, but were switched en masse due to changed circumstances. We sought to answer which of the literature factors significantly impacted employee satisfaction related to teleworking and the need to maintain it after an epidemic. Based on the regression analysis results, we found that employee satisfaction with a greater desire to switch to telecommuting, proficiency in solutions replacing personal communication channels, and perceived improvement in work-life balance has a positive, uncertainty and stress associated with implementation. Workers would be happy to work in this form in the future if they desire to switch to teleworking became more pronounced at the time of introduction. However, the fear of switching, higher age and lack of managerial feedback would lead them back to the workplace. As a suggestion, we stated that managerial support is vital throughout the process, which should be reflected in employees’ involvement in the decision-making process, the appropriate replacement of the personal communication channel, and more frequent feedback. In improving work-life balance, a leader can be on the side of time management to help his followers by prioritizing tasks. In the Home Office experience process, these measures can help employees experience the benefits of telecommuting more
Keywords: home office, covid, change management, leadership
Jel codes: J24, L16, M54
The impact of the pandemic crisis was particularly significant on the labour market. In our study, we sought the answer to what percentage of workers were brought into precarious conditions by the epidemic. Another question was in which industries were the organizations able to use the Home Office option and their practical experience. Based on secondary data, different economic sectors have been affected to different degrees by the viral situation, with low, medium and high levels separated by the literature according to the impact on emissions. Compared to the global average (50%), Hungary has a higher proportion of employees (60%) in the “high” or “medium high” sectors. According to German regional results, education, finance and telecommunications within the service are the areas where teleworking is most applicable to maintain continuous operation and employment. As part of primary research, we interviewed the head of an organization operating in a low-, medium- and high-impact sector in the Northern Great Plain Region. There was no significant change in the “low” category, in the case of “medium” the acquisition activity was pushed into the background, in the case of “high” there was a downsizing. Based on this, it can be said that the Pandemic catalyzed the digitization processes, the Home Office, which was introduced or expanded by force, presumably had a developmental effect on organizations, which effect cannot be left without a trace after the virus situation. The organization’s experience can be utilized if it returns to the “normal” wheelbase by eliminating the disadvantages and strengthening the advantages.
Keywords: covid, employment, home office, economic sectors, regions
JEL codes: J24, L16
A szervezetek hatékonyságát döntően befolyásolja az alkalmazottak elégedettsége és jólléte. Ebben a tanulmányban megvizsgáltuk, hogy a munkahelyi motivációs eszközök hogyan befolyásolják az alkalmazottak jólétét és hatékonyságát, mi okozza a stresszt, és milyen megoldásokkal lehet javítani a munkahelyi légkört, és milyen elemek vannak jelen az egészségfejlesztésben. Az online kérdőívre 157 értékelhető válasz érkezett. A kérdőívet online, a Google Űrlapok rendszer segítségével tettük közzé. A kérdőívre adott válaszok alapján megállapítható, hogy a válaszadók többsége nem ismeri az egészségfejlesztés fogalmát. A jóllét érzését növelik a megemelt bérek, a megbecsülés és az extra pénzjutalmak. Ha kellemesebb, nyugodtabb, kiegyensúlyozottabb a munkahelyi légkör, ez egyértelműen elégedettséghez vezet – nyilatkozták. A stressz nagy részét a túlterhelés, az ügyfélgondozás és a vezetővel való kapcsolat (rossz) minősége okozza. A válaszadók 55 %-a saját bevallása alapján nem szeret a jelenlegi munkahelyén dolgozni.
Kulcsszavak: wellbeing, stressz, emberi erőforrás menedzsment
Jel kódok: M14, M54
Egyre több szervezet küzd a szakképzett munkaerő-hiányának problémájával, így a megtartás-menedzsment a HR szakma egyik kulcsterületévé vált az elmúlt néhány évben. A témával kapcsolatos felmérések döntően a dolgozók szemszögéből közelítik meg a kérdést, lényegesnek tartottuk ezért feltárni, hogy a vállalatvezetők hogyan vélekednek az alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartást célzó intézkedések eredményességéről. Tanulmányunk egy 2020-ban készült kutatás néhány eredményét mutatja be. Az általunk megkérdezett vállalatvezetők a rugalmas foglalkoztatási formákat (pl. rugalmas munkaidő) tartják leginkább alkalmasnak a munkaerő-megtartására, de fontos szerepet tulajdonítanak a csoportkohézió kialakításának (pl. tréningek szervezése), illetve a dolgozók béremelésbe való bevonásának is. A tervezett eszközök közül kiemelkedik a hosszú távú ösztönzési program, munkavállalói elégedettség és elköteleződés felmérése, valamint a teljesítményértékelési rendszer kidolgozása és annak bevezetése. Legkevésbé alkalmazott munkaerő-megtartó programelem az életbiztosítás és a nyugdíjbiztosítás.
Kulcsszavak: HR trendek, munkaerőmegtartás, motiváció, KKV szektor
Jel kód: M54
It is very difficult to measure the leadership excellence. Partly because the indicators of the organizational excellence are measuring mainly the effectiveness and there are not focusing on the “managerial value”. Scientist made a lot of effort in the last decades to measure the “managerial value”, trying to approach from many sides the managerial success. In our research we wanted to review the international practice, and, in the other hand we tried to conduct a situation survey among Hungarian leaders with the aim of exploring the value-creation processes and the managerial thinking and practice which are behind them. This article focuses on self-management solutions and operational management processes to improve the effectiveness of organizational processes. One of the goals of the survey was to discover and present the Hungarian management mindset, the self-management working methods and time-management behavior in the SME sector, all in the context of effectiveness and to enrich with this new information the scientific and market knowledge in the field. 148 managers were included in the study, partly due to the difficult availability, the low willingness to answer, and partly due to the confidential nature of the questions and the large size of the questionnaire.
According to the answers we can see, that among the interviewed leaders are common the use of time-management applications, task-lists (with task prioritization) and accordingly, the next day’s activities are planned in the evenings. Correlated with the supervision of corporate processes, quality management systems, decision making systems and connection with employees (eg: site visits and daily meetings) receive a special attention.
In the basic research we developed 3 clusters: “uncertain empathic”, “experienced strategist” and “ambitious purposeful”. Among them the members of the last cluster performed excellently based on their daily work practices and daily leadership habits. 86.36% of the organizations they lead are profitable and growing at a balanced rate (5% growth rate per year). If we look for the human factors behind the outstanding organizational effectiveness, the components of excellence, presumably this cluster offers solutions.
Keywords: self-management, leadership, organizational effectiveness, managerial effectiveness
Jel codes: M12, M14, M54
The civil organisations started to appear more often around the local regime changes in Hungary and Romania. Most of these civil organisations aimed to perform different tasks in culture, sports or other public purposes. At the same period in the two named countries, Hungary and Romania, a significant change began in employment. Before the regime changes in the two countries, the most important actor on the employer’s side was the state itself. However, after 1989, private companies started to employ more employees and play a greater role in the labour market. At the same time, several civil organisations appeared on the local labour markets that could employ people. However, some of these organisations employed a few volunteer employees who covered most of the activities related to the organisational aims of these organisations. Volunteerism became more popular in Hungary and Romania as well. Volunteering is widespread in sport-focused civil organisations in connection with organising smaller or major sporting events. The study aims to explore the employment characteristics of the sectors concerned in the context of volunteering, particularly the study of non-profit and non-governmental organisations active in the field of sport and measurable volunteering in the field of sport. Based on the hypothesis test results, it can be concluded that due to the different political past, there was indeed some delay in developing the civil sphere in Romania. In the case of both Hungary and Romania, the role of voluntary work is significant. In sports, the role of volunteers has become unavoidable in connection with the operation of various sports associations and sports clubs and the organisation of large sports events.
Keywords: civil organisation, employment, volunteerism, Hungary, Romania
JEL codes: I31, J01, J21, L83, Z22
My research was aimed to investigate the organizational structure and the management functions of the state-accredited football academies in Hungary. The relenvance of this topic is given by the high amount of money flowing in to this sector, and the changes in the onganizational background. With the development of football, the clubs are working yet as companies, and this organistional frame requires a well planned structure. In my research I analized the operation of these organisations as companies, and I tried to answer the suggested questions about structure and leadership, with a comparative analysis of the academies highlighted by the national federation. I revealed what are the organizational problems faced by the academies, and which directions they have to follow to develop their companies, to ensure the safe, and long term operation. I choosed 3 from the 10 state-accredited academies to analyse their structure. The chosen clubs were the Várda Sport Egyesület, the Vasas Kubala Akadémia, and the Győri ETO FC youth base. It was important for me to represent an academy from each part of Hungary, to have the possibility to see some regional specialities. Through my study I investigated the responsibilities of the academy directors to see which were the key areas they had to enchance in their companies, and to define the differences in each organization. It was also my goal to reveal these differences have benefists or disadvantages for the operation. My main goal was to locate critical success factors needed for the modern, and proper operation. The research revealed that the three academies examined follow the traditional linear, functional organizational structure, but there are also differences in the definition of jobs and in the operation of the company. These differences are largely to be found in the local identity and the still ongoing development of the organizational background.
Keywords: sport management, youth academy, football, organizational structure
JEL code: Z2
Hungarian football has developed significantly since 2010, based on the state of the infrastructure or the number of footballers. As a result of the success of sports in recent years, we have been asked whether this positive change has also happened in the case of the football league. Document analysis was applied in the research, thus statistics from transfermarkt site were collected and processed. Based on this, we compared the OTP Bank League with the Czech Fortuna League. Based on the research results the Hungarian football league has gone a significant change in recent years, but it is still not among the top 30 European leagues. We can see negative trends, whether we look at the rate of foreign players or the transfer balance in recent seasons. In conclusion, we cannot talk about its general development in the case of the Hungarian football league, the club’s success is mainly due to the higher quality and market value of foreign players.
Keywords: professional football, player market, human resource management
JEL codes: Z20, Z22
Social media has become an integral part of our daily life and has completely transformed our society. While it had a social function at the beginning, it has had an increasing economic potential from the early 2010s. Our research objective was to explore the economic and social effects of social media on our society. Document analysis was applied in the research, thus relevant publications and studies were collected and processed. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that in recent years the time spent with online media consumption has increased dynamically for all generations, both globally and in Hungary. The advertising market rearranged fundamentally due to the change of media consumption, the revenue of the printed media decreased steeply while the online media increased exponentially since the economic crisis of 2008 in particular with social media. Concerns of data protection and significant tax debt came up in the last couple years despite of the social websites. Based on this fact, by establishing equal competition on the media market, the fulfilment of the tax payment and the observance of data protection rules have become reasonable for the state to take stricter actions against the global technology companies.
Keywords: social media, media consumption, advertising market, data protection
JEL Codes: M31, M37
Nowadays with cities becoming more crowded the growing ratio of public transport users is a highly important measure in the protection of our environment and the reduction of air pollution. This generates the approach that the service should become more and more user friendly, which assumes the aim of providing easy and flexible access to public transport, as an alternative in comparison with other individual travel options.The transport service fees paid by the public transport passengers by itself does not enable the service to be sustainable, because prices cannot be raised above a certain level due to the price sensitivity factor of consumers and alternative transportation solutions. In Hungary, just as in other countries of the world, the sustainability of public transportation requires a variable ratio of financial support. In order to keep the service maintainable, the support of the local governments and national governments are both essential, although the ratio can significantly differ in the Hungarian cities.
Keywords: local public transport; transportation alternatives; fare revenue; subsidy; sustainability
JEL codes: R00, R28, R48, R49