1. Institutional and consumer market aspects of regional tourism development along the Lower-Ipoly

Institutional and consumer market aspects of regional tourism development along the Lower-Ipoly

Kóródi Márta, Mondok Anita, Sánta Ádám Kálmán

Depending on the macro-level management of tourism, whether a top-down or a bottom-up or integrated tourism development method is applied, the assessment of the organizational and consumer market is an integral part of the status quo analysis. Coordination the stakeholders of the organizational market could be the task of a TDM, however, the linear extent and network of settlements, the specific location, and the unfavourable demographic characteristics raise a number of problems. The study summarizes the results of a research to make foundation for a tourism development concept, outlining the similarities and differences between the two stakeholder groups regarding the tourism needs of the given area. It also covers the preferred types of tourism and the services that make up each tourism product (absolute value, ranking and the ratio to the average). The Lower-Ipoly region can occupy a special position in the tourism market in some aspects (water, bicycle and ecotourism) by combining special product and destination development, as well as experience management and perhaps visitor management elements. Although the limited resources of the organizational market confine the realization of consumer ideas, the success of development is influenced by the demarcation of boundaries, which is a qualitative rather than a quantitative issue and is related to segmentation and differentiated supply. The organizational functions of the destination management are performed by the leading organization of the project currently being implemented. Thus, due to the overlapping maintenance periods, if the projects are sufficiently coordinated, continuous tourism coordination will take place even in the absence of a TDM organization. The results of the consumer market research show that solving the problems arising from limited natural resources requires a significant change in market behaviour not only for tourism service providers, but also for tourists.

Keywords: destination development, institutional market, consumer market, segmentation, differentiated supply

JEL Code: Z32


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/1

Impact management of overtourism in European capitals

Impact management of overtourism in European capitals

Szőllős-Tóth Andrea

The main objective of this study is to analyse the cases of the most visited European capitals and the ones most affected by the overtourism phenomenon through the analysis of tourism in Europe. The focus of my work is to identify the actions planned or being implemented to overcome the difficulties caused by the overcrowding of tourists. I present international best practices from European capitals that have proved to be good in dealing with the situation and cases of destinations that are prepared for the emergence of overtourism based on the measures that have been implemented. Overtourism was a serious problem for many destinations before the pandemic, and once the pandemic ends, it is likely that the crowding caused by the presence of tourists will become common again. By using the results of this research, destinations can be better prepared for the arrival of tourists, with suggestions for solutions that can be used in the destinations if the number of tourists approaches or reaches the limits of social or environmental tolerance again.

Keywords: tourism, overtourism, sustainable tourism, capital, Europe

JEL-code: L83, Z32, Q56


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/2

3. The impact of events in and around Kisvárda on tourism in the region

The impact of events in and around Kisvárda on tourism in the region

Tőkészki Panna Lilla, Csipkés Margit

The main goal of our research is to present the impact of the festivals organized in and around the city of Kisvárda on tourism. The main direction was given by the Kisvárda Festival of Theaters, which has been organized for more than 30 years, as it has greatly contributed to the development of tourism in Kisvárda in recent years. In our research material, we briefly present the festival tourism in Hungary, and we also review the relationship between tourism and the festival, taking into account the COVID-19 pandemic that has been present for the past few years.

We also consider the presentation of the research topic important because the tourist offer of the city of Kisvárda and its region is growing, there are many tourist attractions in Kisvárda that make it worth visiting the city and its surroundings. In addition to examining the impact of the Kisvárda Festival of Hungarian Theaters on tourism, we also conducted a questionnaire survey in order to find out the opinions of visitors to events in Kisvárda. In our opinion, festivals can have a significant positive impact on the economy, society and cultural life.

Keywords: festival, event, tourism, attraction, society

JEL code: Z32, Z30


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/3

4. Development characteristics of small villages in Hungary after the turn of the millennium

Development characteristics of small villages in Hungary after the turn of the millennium

Kurucz Lajos

The aim of the study is to describe some characteristic features of Hungarian small villages. Based on a literature review, the topic of a comparative analysis of settlements with different populations has been the subject of research in Hungary for about half a century. Laws had been enacted since the 1970s to reduce the spatial differences. However, despite the national’s intention, the differences between the individual regions and settlement groups continued to increase. This is also reflected in the fact that under the current development policy legislation – Government Decree 290/2014. (XI. 26.) – small villages have a higher than average chance of being included in disadvantaged districts. The aim of my study is to outline the situation of municipalities with a population of less than half a thousand people by analyzing statistical data and presenting the results of my own questionnaire survey. These municipalities make up more than a third of the Hungarian settlements population, while their population just only 2.2% of the national population. In the course of the analysis, I focus primarily on demographic processes and the development of communal infrastructure. These developments (sewage network, pipeline gas supply) could highly improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of small settlements. Despite all these investments, emigration is significant due to the lack of jobs, as a result of which the aging of local society continues. The importance of the regional embeddedness of the settlements is shown by the fact that while the situation of the small settlements of Veszprém, Vas and Zala county can be said to be relatively favorable, the small villages of Baranya, Somogy and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén can be considered disadvantaged in almost all indicators.

Keywords: Rural areas, Infrastructure, Demography

JEL Code: J10, O18, R58


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/4

5. The possibility of making urban public transport more attractive

The possibility of making urban public transport more attractive

Tóth Szabolcs

Urban transport today sets a significant challenge to its residents. The increase in passenger car traffic, which has increased significantly in recent years due to the pandemic situation, also shows that the population is rather committed to private transport then using public transport. In order to create a livable urban life, urgent steps need to be taken to ensure that urban mobility remains sustainable as expected by the population. Fo this, several tools are available to city leaders. These could include the use of micromobility devices, the introduction of sharing-based systems and measures to restrict car traffic. In addition, the development of public transport and the diversion of the population in this direction are obvious. Most major cities today are working in this direction by developing these networks and services in order to improve the accessibility and attractiveness of these transport systems. Several major European cities have made public transport partially or completely free in order to maximize public use. This effort is not unknown in Hungary either, as a significant part of the population has been able to use this form of transport free of charge for several decades. However, if full free service is introduced, it will be necessary to examine its effects from an economic and social point of view.

Keywords: local public transport; free travel; sustainability

JEL codes: R40, R42, R48, R49


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/5

6. Questionnaire analysis of the situation of the artisans of the Debrecen Folk Crafts Festival in 2021

Questionnaire analysis of the situation of the artisans of the Debrecen Folk Crafts Festival in 2021

Kardosné Riz Zsuzsa

Debrecen Folk Craft Festival faithfully preserves the cultural, social and economic traditions of Debrecen. As a tourist event, the festival provides an opportunity to learn about the centuries-old folk crafts, the artisans, their tools and their products. The traditional fair character of the event is given by the street stalls and the possibility to buy the products. The fair is part of Debrecen’s history (it has had the right to hold fairs since the early 1400s), which has given a strong impetus to its economic development. The town’s geographical and social characteristics made it a market centre. On the one hand, it was built at the junction of land routes and, on the other, it was owned by lords of national rank who helped to create a farming town and a local society of artisan-traders. In Debrecen, handicraft and trade fair past is still preserved in street names such as Külsővásártér, Mester street, Faraktár street, Csapó street, which is also the venue of the 11th Folk Craft Festival. The aim of the research is to investigate the extent to which Debrecen Folk Craft Festival is a Debrecen event, as well as the composition of the local artisans still operating (craft, age, gender, experience), their business strengths and weaknesses, and their presence on the internet. This representative quantitative survey was carried out with 23 representatives of 15 crafts (leatherworkers, potters, beadworkers, embroiderers, straw weavers, enamelers, furniture makers, woodcarvers, textile toy makers, honeycake makers, etc.) using a self-completion questionnaire. The survey is representative as all participants completed the questionnaire.  Since folk crafts are part of the Debrecen identity, and the local culture, their survival is in the interest of the city. The survey covered the forms of their businesses, their sales opportunities, their financial background, etc. The structure of the paper: Introduction presents the festival itself, Material and Methodology, Results and Conclusions chapters describe the questionnaire survey’s results. Conclusions of the research: the cultural and social impact of the Folk Craft Festival is significant, especially through the promotion of folk art heritage, community organisation and its impact on consumer habits. There is still a wide variety of folk crafts in Debrecen, but the masters of some folk crafts are ageing. Traditionally, these one-man businesses still prefer to sell at fairs, because they are weak in marketing and advertising, and nearly a third of them have online presence on the association’s website only. Their strength is their expertise, with 40, 50 or even 60 years of experience. The majority of products are qualified by the Hungarian Heritage House, which protects the masters from having their products copied and mass-produced by others.

Keywords: Debrecen, folk crafts, festival, questionnaire

Jel-code: Z10


7. Regional differences in the distribution of Industry 4.0 applications in the SME sector

Regional differences in the distribution of Industry 4.0 applications in the SME sector

Nagy Richárd

Since 2014, the European Commission has been measuring the development of the digital economy and society with the DESI indicator. The DESI 2020 report shows that the Covid-19 epidemic has made digital tools even more important for countries’ economies. Hungary is ranked 21st out of 28 EU Member States on the DESI indicator which is measuring the digital economy and society. Improving the competitiveness of Hungarian companies in the international market depends on the extent of their digitalisation. The aim of this research is to provide an overview of the financial instruments and resources available to support the implementation of an advanced digitalisation systems at Hungarian companies in the past EU budget period. Two calls for proposals were available in the 2014-2020 funding period in Hungary in the context of advanced digitisation: GINOP 1.2.8-17 and GINOP 3.2.6-8.2.4-17. A regional comparative analysis between the two calls was not feasible because the funding intensities for eligible costs are different for the two calls, therefore the calls were evaluated separately. The analysis found that the reasons for the low willingness to apply are assumed to include the lack of economic and social potential in rural areas, with the main reasons being the lack of own resources to invest and the lack of a workforce with the right digital skills.

Keywords: digitalisation, Industry 4.0, GINOP

JEL code: M15


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/7

8. Honey consumption and purchasing habits in Hajdú-Bihar county

Honey consumption and purchasing habits in Hajdú-Bihar county

Vida Viktória, Feketéné Ferenczi Alíz

The main objective of our research is to present the market situation and conditions of the Hungarian beekeeping sector from the perspective of consumers. We considered it appropriate to present the beekeeping market because the European Union is the second largest producer of honey in the world, and Hungary ranks third in the EU in terms of the honey production volume. The changes in global and EU trade, market trends and changes in consumer habits are significant influencing factors in terms of domestic conditions. The market situation is presented through a review of the relevant domestic and foreign literature, and we analysed statistical databases to examine the topic (data provision of beekeeping programs of the European Union member states, CSO, OMME, Statista database and reports). The consumption of honey by the Hungarian population has been slowly increasing year by year, but we are still below the European Union average. Honey is our basic food of animal origin; it has many beneficial properties, so the study of consumption and purchasing habits is an important issue. To analyse the consumer and purchasing habits, we chose the questionnaire survey method. In our research, we sought the answer to how and in which direction honey consumption and purchasing habits have changed in Hungary today, and whether there are any regional difference based on the answers of the respondents. The online questionnaire was structured according to the 4Ps of the marketing mix; accordingly, we had questions about the product itself (honey), its price, place of purchase, promotion opportunities and the way and frequency of honey consumption. The results obtained from the survey were evaluated, subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and then analysed for correlations based on background variables including gender, age, education, type of settlement, and county. Responses were evaluated using the SPSS 22.0 data analysis and statistics program. The results of the sample are not representative, but they well represent and summarize the situation.

Keywords: honey, honey consumption, purchasing habits, healthy lifestyle

JEL Code: M31


DOI: 10.30716/RSZ/22/1/8

9. Exploring changes in employee competencies based on analysis of data from a job search page

Exploring changes in employee competencies based on analysis of data from a job search page

Pirohov-Tóth Barbara

By analyzing the job offers on the KarrierM job search portal, the research sheds light on the new competence needs appearing on the labor market. In order to successfully explore this, I performed a comparative analysis between the most important competencies during the first (Pirohov-Tóth-Kiss, 2021) (N=363) and the second (current) (N= 332) examination. Taking into account the employment data of the KSH with the help of analysis, we examine the development of the most important key competences and specialized areas based on the data of the second examination, and the regional results were presented. I also explored the role of foreign language knowledge as a workplace competency and other expectations appearing in advertisements. Based on the results of the research, the most important key competencies include working independently and in a team, as well as reliability.

Keywords: job advertisement analysis, labor market, competence

JEL Codes: J24, J28, J40



10. Is an education programme based on social innovation sustainable?

Is an education programme based on social innovation sustainable?

Varga Krisztina, Kucsma Daniella

Social sustainability is a key concept that can be identified as an important factor in the processes supporting the satisfaction of the current needs of humanity and the preservation of the environment and natural resources for future generations. Social innovation initiatives are solutions that support a sustainable future and can be suitable for mitigating differences at the regional level, increasing regional competitiveness, and helping to catch up. The reduction and elimination of educational inequalities requires long-term solutions that require innovative cooperation between the actors of society. Within the framework of the study, we examine the examples of social innovation efforts in education and the effects of these practices, during which we pay special attention to issues of social sustainability. Our goal is to present social innovation programs and good practices that can be identified as equalizing education solutions and can be adapted and sustained in order to increase well-being while taking into account local needs and demands as well as the characteristics of the given community. Within the framework of the study, the examined good practices are presented in a structured form, emphasizing the key elements that ensure social sustainability.

Keywords: social innovation, sustainability, educational program, good practice

JEL Codes: O35, I24, Q01


11. Working conditions at the Cannery of Debrecen according to the house organ’s news

Working conditions at the Cannery of Debrecen according to the house organ’s news

Kovács Tünde

The Cannery of Debrecen started their production in 1969 but the ceremonial handover only took place a year later. One hard argument for the company to be placed in Debrecen was that the city could provide the complete labour force for the completion of the production appropriation of the current plan. This was not always successful, despite the fact that they wanted to solve the employment of women and released agricultural workers with the establishment of the new factory. The management of the factory took different measures to attain and keep the employees, which was not an easy task because fluctuation was high since the working circumstances were unfavourable and the work was seasonal. The increase of domestic demand and export demand for canned products made the management of the company to reach for their “hidden reserves”. One possible form of this was the “socialist brigade movement”, who advertised work competitions. We can also see in the brigade journal entries that the socialist brigades took extra assignments, from these entries we can get an insight into the lives of the employees and what was expected from them.

Keywords: Cannery of Debrecen (DEKO), socialist brigade, work competition

JEL COde: 02 02 07



12. The concept of Central Europe in the post-war Soviet academic discourse

The concept of Central Europe in the post-war Soviet academic discourse

The article explores the scope of use and the level of terminological and conceptual maturity of “Central Europe” in the post-war Soviet academic discourse. While there is a current in the international debate examining the notion in substance, an investigation of its usage in distinct academic languages can help to render the discussion more practice-oriented. The present work is based on a review of authoritative sources of the period, such as encyclopediae and academic dictionaries as well as publications of prominent Soviet scholars in the disciplines where the notion found its application (geography, history, etc.). The influence of foreign publications and the tendency to employ “Central Europe” as a schematic mental placement for distinct phenomena are found pivotal for the term development. The article contributes to the attempts of delimiting the region, through evincing shared understandings of and around it, and looking into the continuity between the Soviet and the post-Soviet perspectives.

Keywords: geoconcept, regionalization, terminology

JEL Code: N94